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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Crusaders||View Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of the Crusaders

The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th and 13th century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rûm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe's pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Near East 1135


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond III, 1163 - 1201

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Cover Coin - book cover coin for Malloy, Preston and Seltman's Coins of the Crusader States.

From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years. Ex A.J. |Seltman| Collection.

crusader book
SH45453. Billon denier, Malloy Crusaders 53b (book cover coin), Choice EF, weight 0.994 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 135o, obverse + BOAMVNDVS, elongated bearded head right wearing helmet and chain-mail, crescent left, star right, A ornamented with pellets; reverse + AMTIOCNIA (sic), cross pattée, crescent in upper right angle, A's ornamented with pellets; buyer will receive a free copy of Coins of the Crusader States signed by Alex Malloy; scarce; SOLD


Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, John II, 1432 - 1458

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From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of Coins of the Crusader States. Ex Sotheby's auction 10-14-99. Ex John J. Slocum Collection. Mr. Slocum was in the American diplomatic service in the Holy Land where he collected rare and unique coins in the early 1960's.
CR31991. Billon gros, Malloy Crusaders, type 10, 136 var. (no depression at center, legend ends PR), aEF, weight 3.885 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 225o, obverse + IOAn REX D, king seated on curule chair, foreparts of lions at sides, cloak open, cruciform scepter in right, orb in left, cauldron left, triple pellet after X, double pellet after D; reverse + IERUSAIm E D ChIPRE, Jerusalem cross, small depression at center, triple pellet legend breaks; SOLD


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Late Anonymous, 1250 - 1268

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This is the line drawing coin in Malloy, Preston and Seltman's Coins of the Crusader States.

From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years.

Antioch existed for over 1500 years, it was one of the three most important cities in the ancient world, and in the 1st century had a population of 500,000 (not counting women and slaves). On 18 May 1268, Antioch surrendered to Baibars on the condition that the lives of the citizens would be spared. As soon as his troops were within the gates, Baibars ordered the gates shut and brutally massacred everyone in the city. Lamenting that Antioch's ruler had not been present either for the siege or the ransacking and murder, Baibars wrote a detailed letter describing exactly what had been done, concluding with the phrase, "Had you been there, you would have wished you had never been born."

Historically of great importance, this coin was minted in the last throngs of the city of Antioch as it was dying.

CR31585. Bronze AE 15, Malloy Crusaders 132 (this coin), VF, weight 0.986 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 225o, obverse A/N-T/I clockwise in the angles of a long cross pattée; reverse ANTI counterclockwise in the angles of a long cross pattée; extremely rare; SOLD


Crusaders, Principality of Achaea, Robert d'Anjou (de Taranto), 1333 - 1364, Imitative Andrea Dandolo, Doge of Venezia

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Venetian style imitative ducati copying the types of Andrea Dandolo and other doges are traditionally attributed to Robert d'Anjou (de Taranto) as Prince of Achaea. Widespread circulation and numerous varieties indicate some possibility they may have also been struck elsewhere, such as Chios under Genoa or Mytilene under the Gattilusi.
ME45452. Gold ducato, cf. Ives p. XIII; Schlumberger p. 21 and pl. XXI, 19 - 22; Gamberini 344; and Friedberg 38a var. (K on obv), Superb EF, weight 3.479 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, 1443 - 1454; obverse S/N / V/E/N/E/T/I D/V/X ANDR DANDVO (S and third N sideways), St. Mark standing right, receiving banner from Doge kneeling left; reverse SIT T XPE DAT Q TV RIZ IZTE DVCATT (S retrograde), Christ standing facing, raising right hand in benediction, Gospels in left, surrounded by mandorla containing nine stars; ex CNG; SOLD


Crusaders, County of Edessa, Baldwin II, Regent 1119 - 1126

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From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of Coins of the Crusader States. Ex Sotheby's auction 10-14-99. Ex John J. Slocum Collection. Mr. Slocum was in the American diplomatic service in the Holy Land where he collected rare and unique coins in the early 1960's.

In 1098 the unpopular and childless ruler of Edessa, Toros, invited the aid of the crusader Baldwin de Boulogne, adopted him as his son and appointed him co-regent. A month later, Toros was dethroned and executed. Edessa was the first state created by the crusaders, on 10 March 1098, and was also the first to fall. On 3 November 1146, Edessa was conquered by Nur-ad-Din Mahmud.
SH31974. Bronze AE 15, Malloy Crusaders 15c; Pesant, Num. Circ. (1982), 2, aVF, weight 1.641 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 270o, obverse + BA/Γ∆ OY/INXO/MI (Baldwin, count), legend in four lines; reverse + STAV9IC NIXACI (By the Cross may you conquer), cross pattée, pellet at the end of each arm except the bottom bifurcated arm; extremely rare; SOLD


Crusaders, County of Edessa, Baldwin II, Regent 1119 - 1126

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From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of Coins of the Crusader States. Ex Sotheby's auction 10-14-99. Ex John J. Slocum Collection. Mr. Slocum was in the American diplomatic service in the Holy Land where he collected rare and unique coins in the early 1960's.

In 1098 the unpopular and childless ruler of Edessa, Toros, invited the aid of the crusader Baldwin de Boulogne, adopted him as his son and appointed him co-regent. A month later, Toros was dethroned and executed. Edessa was the first state created by the crusaders, on 10 March 1098, and was also the first to fall. On 3 November 1146, Edessa was conquered by Nur-ad-Din Mahmud.
SH31975. Bronze AE 15, Malloy Crusaders 15c; Pesant, Num. Circ. (1982), 2, aVF, weight 1.275 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 0o, obverse + BA/Γ∆ OY/INXO/MI (Baldwin, count), legend in four lines; reverse +STAV9IC NIXACI (By the Cross may you conquer), cross pattée, pellet at the end of each arm except the bottom bifurcated arm; extremely rare; SOLD


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Late Anonymous, 1250 - 1268

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From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of Coins of the Crusader States. See Malloy Crusaders p. 197 for a discussion of the late anonymous series.

Old tag notes, "The Hague, Holland Viken Havandjian, Jan. 22, 1976, $65.00"

Ex John J. Slocum Collection. Mr. Slocum was in the American diplomatic service in the Holy Land where he collected rare and unique coins in the early 1960's.

Antioch existed for over 1500 years, it was one of the three most important cities in the ancient world, and in the 1st century had a population of 500,000 (not counting women and slaves). On 18 May 1268, Antioch surrendered to Baibars on the condition that the lives of the citizens would be spared. As soon as his troops were within the gates, Baibars ordered the gates shut and brutally massacred everyone in the city. Lamenting that Antioch's ruler had not been present either for the siege or the ransacking and murder, Baibars wrote a detailed letter describing exactly what had been done, concluding with the phrase, "Had you been there, you would have wished you had never been born."

FORVM has three examples of this type (one a variant without the T) from the Malloy Collection. No other examples are known and the type is otherwise unknown to modern numismatics. Historically of great importance, these coins were minted in the last throngs of the city of Antioch as it was dying.

SH32267. Bronze pougeoise, unpublished and historically important, the finest of three known to exist, Malloy Crusaders -, Metcalf Crusades -, aVF, octagonal shaped flan, weight 0.646 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 225o, obverse hexagram, ANT (Antioch) monogram in center (T is small and above H); reverse hexagram, ΠP monogram in center (uncertain meaning, perhaps the moneyers name or the ruling Crusaders at this time but interestingly in Greek not Latin); of great rarity; SOLD


Crusaders, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Baldwin III, 1143 - 1163

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This is the plate coin in Malloy, Preston and Seltman's Coins of the Crusader States.

From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex CNA IV mail bid sale, lot 400816, 21 Sep 1988.
SH32094. Gold cut fragment, Malloy Crusaders 59 and pl. 1, 59 (this coin), VF, weight 0.623 g, maximum diameter 10.7 mm, obverse LE + C, six-pointed star pattern; reverse V : S, multifoil; SOLD


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Louis of Burgundy, 31 Jul 1313 - 2 Aug 1316

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Louis of Burgundy was a younger son of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and Agnes of France. On 31 Jul 1313, he married Matilda of Hainaut to whom Philip I of Taranto gave the Principality of Achaea. Louis ceded his family lands in Burgundy to his elder brother in exchange for the title of "King of Thessalonica." Matilda and Louis arrived separately in Achaea, she sailing directly from Marseille to Navarino with 1,000 troops. Matilda's army was defeated on 22 Feb 1316 by Ferdinand of Majorca, who also claimed the principality. Louis came by way of Venice to solicit aid from the Republic. He defeated Ferdinand, who was killed in the battle, on 5 July 1316. Four weeks later, Louis died. The Chronicle of the Morea attributes his death to a fever, while the Catalan Declaratio summa states that he was poisoned by John, count of Cephalonia. His death left Achaea in an unsettled state, with his brother Eudes, his wife, and the Angevins all attempting to gain it.Arms_of_Achaea
ME71110. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 29, Metcalf Crusades 993 - 996, Schlumberger XII 23, aVF, coppery spots, weight 0.599 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 135o, Clarentza mint, 1313 - 1316; obverse + LODOVIC•D•B•P•AChE, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA annulet before and after legend, castle tournois, annulet left; very rare; SOLD


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Raymond Roupen or Later, Anonymous Gate Series, 1216 - 1268

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From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of Coins of the Crusader States.

Ex John J. Slocum Collection. Mr. Slocum was in the American diplomatic service in the Holy Land where he collected rare and unique coins in the early 1960's.

Antioch existed for over 1500 years, was one of the three most important cities in the ancient world, and in the 1st century had a population of about 500,000 (not counting women and slaves). On 18 May 1268, Antioch surrendered to Baibars on the condition that the lives of the citizens would be spared. As soon as his troops were within the gates, Baibars ordered the gates shut and brutally massacred everyone in the city. Lamenting that Antioch's ruler had not been present either for the siege or the ransacking and murder, Baibars wrote a detailed letter describing exactly what had been done, concluding with the phrase, "Had you been there, you would have wished you had never been born."

SH32272. Bronze AE 18, Malloy Crusaders -, Metcalf Crusades -; See Malloy Crusaders p. 196 ff. for discussion of the Anonymous Gate Series, F, weight 1.557 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, obverse gate containing pellets, four horizontal bars and four vertical bars; reverse six spoked wheel wending in center with each spoke ending in the center with an annulet; unique!; SOLD




  




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REFERENCES|

Bedoukian, P. Coinage of the Artaxiads of Armenia. RNS Special Publication 10. (London, 1978).
Bedoukian, P. Coinage of Cilician Armenia. ANSNNM 147. (1962).
Bellinger, A. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Alexius I to Michael VIII, 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1966).
Biaggi, E. Monete e Zecche medievali Italiane dal Sec. VIII al Sec. XV. (Torino, 1992).
Boudeau, E. Monnaies Françaises Provinciales. (Maastricht, 1970).
Boutin, S. Monnaies des Empires de Byzance - Collection of N.K. Volumes 1-2. (Maastricht, 1983).
Grierson, P. & L. Travaini. Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 14: Italy III: South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia. (Cambridge, 1998).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Malloy, A., I. Preston, & A. Seltman. Coins of the Crusader States, 2nd Edition. (New York, 2004).
Metcalf, D. Coinage of the Crusaders and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. (London, 1995).
Metcalf, D. "Coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the name of Baudouin" in NC 1978.
Nercessian, Y. Armenian Coins and Their Values. Armenian Numismatic Society, Special Publication 8. (Los Angeles, 1995).
Phillips, M. "The 'Roupen' Hoard of Helmet Pennies of Antioch" in NC 2005.
Porteous, J. "Crusader Coinage with Greek or Latin Inscriptions" in A History of the Crusades, vol. IV. (Madison, 1989).
Sabine, C. "The billon and copper coinage of the crusader country of Tripoli, c. 1102-1268" in NC 1980.
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Schlumberger, G. Numismatique de l'Orient latin. (1878; Supplement 1882; reprinted: Graz, 1954).
Sommer, A. Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Münzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Sotheby's. The John J. Slocum Collection of Coins of the Crusades, catalog of public auction, London, 6 Mar 1997.
Travaini, L. "Hohenstaufen and Angevin denari of Sicily and Southern Italy: their mint attributions" in NC 1993.
Tzamalis, A. "Addition to the tornesia of the 1st group of Guillaume de Villehardouin" in NK 11 (1992).
Tzamalis, A. "The first period of the Frankish tornesio. New evidence from an old hoard" in NK 9-10 (1990-1991).

Catalog current as of Friday, December 13, 2019.
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Crusader Coins