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Galatia was named for Gauls from Thrace who settled there and became its ruling caste following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 B.C. The local Cappadocian population was left in control of the towns and most of the land, paying tithes to the new military aristocracy who kept aloof in fortified farmsteads, surrounded by their bands. These Celtic warriors were often hired as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. For decades their war bands ravaged western Asia Minor. About 232 B.C. the Hellenized cities united under king Attalus I of Pergamum, defeated them, and forced them to confine themselves to Galatia. The Galatians were defeated by Rome in 189 B.C. and became a client state of Rome in 64 B.C. During his second missionary journey, St. Paul of Tarsus visited Galatia, where he was detained by sickness (Galatians 4:13). The Galatians were still speaking their language (Gaulish) in the 4th century A.D.
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, c. 64 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB84653. Bronze AE 18, Arslan K1; RPC I p. 536, 2; SNGvA 6099; HGC 7 775 (R1); BMC Galatia -; SNG Cop -, gVF, glossy dark green patina, slightest porosity, weight 5.923 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 45o, Pessinus (Ballihisar, Turkey) mint, c. 63 - 58 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverseeagle standing left on fulmen (thunderbolt), head right, wings slightly open, monogram (∆HIOTAP) left; rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Kings of Galatia, Amyntas, 37 - 25 B.C.
Mark Antony made Amyntas king of Galatia and several adjacent countries in 37 B.C. Most examples of this type depict Artemis with the features of Antony's wife, the famed Cleopatra VII of Egypt. According to Plutarch, Amyntas was among the adherents of Mark Antony at Actium in 31 B.C. but deserted to Octavian just before the battle. In 25 B.C., Amyntas was killed in an ambush by the widow of a highland prince avenging her husband's execution. Upon his death Galatia became a Roman province.GB86419. Bronze AE 19, RPC I 3503; SNG BnF 2369; SNG Cop 102; Sear Imperators 815; BMC Galatia p. 3, 14; HGC 7 784 (S), VF, green patina, earthen deposits, marks and scratches, small spots of corrosion, weight 3.145 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, 37 - 31 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Artemis (with the features of Cleopatra VII) right, bow and quiver to left; reverse stag standing right, BAΣIΛE-ΩΣ above, AMYNTOΣ in exergue; scarce; $150.00 (€127.50)
Anatolia, Unknown King, 2nd Century B.C. - 1st Century A.D.
RPC I, p. 536, notes that this crab type, struck in three denominations is traditionally attributed to Amyntas, King of Galatia, 39 - 25 B.C., but omits the coins from the catalog because, "It is hard to see that this is really a version of the king's name." RPC then discusses other possible attributions and dismisses them all. We agree Amyntas is surely wrong.SH65879. Bronze AE 16, SNG Fitzwilliam 5381; Imhoof-Blumer ZfN (1874) p. 332, 13; RPC I - (note, p. 536), VF, weight 3.985 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, obverse crab; reverse BA ME/MTOY / M (sic), inscription in three lines, no type; very rare; $80.00 (€68.00)
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