the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Soli-Pompeiopolis,
Aratos was a native of . His chief pursuits were medicine, grammar, and philosophy. He studied with Menecrates in , Philitas in Cos and Praxiphanes in Athens. About 276 he was invited to the court of the II Gonatas, whose over the Gauls in 277 BC Aratus set to verse. There he wrote his most famous poem, Phaenomena ("Appearances"). He then spent some time at the court of Antiochus I but returned to where he died sometime before 240 B.C.SH58900. Bronze hexassarion,
BIG 32mm bronze; extremely ; $320.00 (€284.80) 1605 (same dies); , p. 247, 20; -; -; -; -; -; -, gF, 12.323 g, maximum 32.4 mm, 180o, Soli-Pompeiopolis mint, 245 - 246 A.D.; AYT K IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EY CEB, , draped, and right, Π − Π across ; ΠOMΠHIOΠOΛ IAT (year 311) ς (6 assaria), bare-headed, draped of Aratos right; ex Ancient Numismatic Enterprise, with an old round coin ticket probably from 1960's or 1970's,
, July 249 - First Half of June 251 A.D., Anazarbus,
This coin commemorates an Olympic by Anazarbus. "urns" or "crowns" were awarded to winners at ancient Greek games. They are called "crowns" because they may have been placed on the of the . Beginning about two decades after this issue, the Olympics would begin a long decline. In 267, the German Heruli invaded attacking Athens, Corinth, Argos, and Sparta. Although the invaders probably never reached Olympia, buildings were dismantled for material to build a wall around the Temple of Zeus and the Bouleterion. An earthquake, a failing economy, further invasions, and Christian antagonism probably caused further decline. The record of victors is very patchy after 261, with a gap of nearly a century from c. 277 to c. 369. Events may merely lack documentation or perhaps there was a moratorium. The last known Olympic was the Athenian boxer, M. Aurelios Zopyros in 385. In 393, I outlawed all pagan festivals, including the Olympics, ending a thousand years of Greek tradition. Source: and Greek Athletics by Thomas F. Scanlon.RP84934. Bronze triassarion, 744 (Vs 2/Rs 2, 4 spec.), 1495, 4732, 2272, -, -, F, dark , interesting portrait, porous, 8.486 g, maximum 24.1 mm, 180o, Anazarbus (Anavarza, Turkey) mint, 249 - 250 A.D.; AYT K KVI TPAIAN ∆EKIOC CEB, right; ANAZA• EN∆OΞ• ET HΞC (glorious Anazarbus, year 268), prize crown inscribed ∆EKIOC, containing frond, Γ − Γ (seat of 3 provinces, holder of 3 neocorates) flanking crown, OIKOVM/ENIKOC (Ecumenical = Olympic Games) in two lines below; very ; $220.00 (€195.80)
Persian Empire, Tarkumuwa (Datames), of & , c. 384 - 362 B.C., Tarsus,
Datames' enemies in Artaxerxes' court accused him, perhaps falsely, of intending to revolt against the Great . Secretly warned, he then did, in fact, revolt, c. 370 B.C. The revolt appeared to be leading to a breakup of the entire western half of the empire into autonomous states. His own son's desertion to Artaxerxes was, however, the beginning of the end, which came when Datames was assassinated, c. 362 B.C.GS84906. Silver , 25; 278; 81; series 1, pl. 3, 22, aEF, , tiny edge splits, 0.611 g, maximum 10.1 mm, 45o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, 378 - 372 B.C.; female right (Aphrodite?), wearing earring, necklace, and diadem; Aramaic right, helmeted male (Ares?) right; ex Numismatics e-sale 28 (2 Jul 2016), lot 231; $210.00 (€186.90)
and Annius , Caesars, 166 - 170 A.D., Tarsus,
The brothers Annius and , sons of and the Younger, were made caesars in 166 A.D. Annius died at age 7 of natural causes in on 10 September 169. His younger brother became his father's heir and later successor to his father's throne. The are obviously unrealistic - the caesars were small boys when the coin was struck. RP84085. Bronze AE 17, 5035 (17 spec.); p. 191, 166; 5993; 1456; 1018 var. (no ); -, F, turquoise , , porous, earthen deposits, 3.339 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 0o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, 166 - 170 A.D.; KOPOI CEBACTOY, draped youthful busts of Annius (on left) and , over crossed club and between them; temple with ten columns, left with right and wings open in , KOINOC KIΛIKIAC in , TAP-COY across at center, MHTPOΠ in ; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Persian Empire, Tarkumuwa (Datames), of & , c. 384 - 362 B.C., Tarsus,
In historical times, Tarsos was first ruled by the , followed by , and then the Persian Empire. Tarsus, as the principal town of , was the seat of a Persian satrapy from 400 B.C. onward. Indeed, Xenophon records that in 401 B.C., when Cyrus the Younger marched against Babylon, the city was governed by Syennesis in the name of the Persian monarch. Alexander the Great passed through with his armies in 333 B.C. and nearly met his death here after a bath in the Cydnus. By this time Tarsus was already largely influenced by Greek language and culture, and as of the Seleucid Empire it became more and more Hellenized. Strabo praises the cultural level of Tarsus in this period with its philosophers, poets and linguists. The schools of Tarsus rivaled those of Athens and .GS84907. Silver , 310, 217, 48, 4567, II 600, Gorturk -, VF, and struck, , earthen deposits, light corrosion, 0.714 g, maximum 11.1 mm, 135o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, of female facing slightly left, drapery around neck; draped of female (Aphrodite?) right, wearing , hoop earring, and pearl necklace; ex Numismatics e-sale 28 (2 Jul 2016), lot 229; $175.00 (€155.75)
Hierapolis-Kastabala, , 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Hierapolis-Kastabala was an ancient city in Pedias, three kilometers ancient Pyramus. Alexander the Great stopped at Kastabala before the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. Antiochus IV refounded the city with the name . In the first century B.C., was the capital of a small local kingdom under the rule of the former Cilician pirate Tarcondimotus I, an ally of . referred to the city as Rome's most loyal ally beyond the and the best friend of the Roman people. The city was known for its temple of Perasia. Strabo wrote of her priestesses who, in a trance, would walk barefoot over hot coals without damage.GY73092. Bronze AE 15, cf. CNG e-auction 250, lot 112; otherwise apparently unpublished; -, SNG Levante-, SNGvA-, -, -, F, , highlighting "desert" , some corrosion, 2.776 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 90o, Hieropolis-Kastabola, mint, 2nd - 1st centuries B.C.; , draped of right, dotted ; standing left on torch, wings open, left, IEPOΠOΛITΩN above, ΠPOΣ TΩI ΠYPA[NA?] below; extremely ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Persian Empire, Tarsos, , Pharnabazos, c. 379 - 374 B.C.
In 377, Pharnabazos was made commander of a Persian attempt to retake , which had rebelled and had defeated two previous attempts to retake it. Pharnabazos hired Greek mercenaries under the Athenian general Iphicrates to reinforce his army. A dispute with Iphicrates resulted in failure of the expedition. GS84908. Silver , series 4, 76, 257, 8645 (uncertain ), -, -, aEF, , slightest corrosion, 0.740 g, maximum 10.9 mm, 90o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, 379 - 374 B.C.; seated half left on backless throne, torso bare, around hips and legs and over left shoulder and arm, grounded long lotus-tipped vertical before him in right hand, left hand at waist; of bearded warrior to left, wearing crested Attic helmet with raised ear flap and adorned with tendril; ex Numismatics e-sale 27 (28 May 2016), lot 254; $150.00 (€133.50)
Seleukeia Kalykadnos, , 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
The Cilician Seleukia was founded by Seleukos I on the course of river Kalykadnos and soon became an important city, rivaling Tarsos.GB85027. Bronze AE 18, 697, 925, 205 ff. var. ( ), VF, off center, 4.078 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 0o, Seleukeia ad Calycadnum (Silifke, Turkey) mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; laureate of right, ΣYM upward behind; ΣEΛEYKEΩN TΩN ΠPOΣ TΩI KAΛYKA∆NΩI, forepart of horse right, complex above, PE and M∆H below; $130.00 (€115.70)
, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tarsos,
"urns" or "crowns" were awarded to winners at ancient Greek games, similar to modern trophies. They are called "crowns" because they may have been placed on the of the . The crowns on this coin and the under the table refer to the Severia Olympia Games celebrated by Tarsos and other cities near the Syrian at a site called "the Quadrigae" where defeated in 194 A.D.
The A M K Γ Γ is a boast of Tarsos: Πρωτη Mεγιστη Kαλλιστη, meaning First (A is the Greek numeral one), Greatest, and Most Beautiful city of the three (adjoining) provinces ( , Isauria, ). The final Γ indicates a third , which was received under Valerian.
RP83549. Bronze AE 33, 1185 (same dies), 1820 (same), 262, 6077 var. ( arrangement), -, -, aF, porous, weak center on , a little off-center, 16.511 g, maximum 32.9 mm, 180o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, c. 255 - 260 A.D.; AV KAI ΠOVΛI OVAΛEPIANOC CE, , draped and right, Π - Π flanking at sides; TAPCO-V MHTPOPOLEWC, three prize crowns set on table, CEVHPI OΛV / A∆PIA EKI/XIPIAI / AVΓOVCTI-A / AKTIA , Γ Γ in ; ex ; $110.00 (€97.90)
Soloi, , c. 100 - 30 B.C.
(or Soloi) was a colony of Rhodes, founded c. 700 B.C. southwest of Tarsus, in . It was destroyed in the 1st century B.C., and refounded by as Pompeiopolis (not to be confused with the Pompeiopolis in ).GB57540. Bronze AE 26, cf. 1197, 872, -, aVF, 9.225 g, maximum 24.1 mm, 0o, Soloi mint, c. 100 - 30 B.C.; with winged in center; ΣOΛEΩN (below), Aphrodite riding bull right, owl before, above left; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
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