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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and Decline ▸ GallienusView Options:  |  |  |   

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.


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In 263 A.D., King Odenathus of Palmyra declared himself ruler of the area west of the River Euphrates and was given the title Dux Orientalis by Emperor Gallienus.
RB86184. Orichalcum sestertius, Göbl MIR 92h, RIC V J209, Cohen V 132, Hunter IV J24 corr. (described with aegis), SRCV III 10467, aVF, tight flan, dark green patina with light earthen deposits, some corrosion, a few blue-green spots, tiny edge cracks, weight 16.198 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse CONCORDIA EXERCIT (harmony with the army), Concord standing left holding patera and double cornucopia, S C (senatus consulto) at sides low across field; the lighter blue-green spots are hard, not powdery, and do NOT appear to be active corrosion; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

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The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are two agoras: a commercial agora and the "state" agora. The commercial agora is over 8000 square meters, surrounded by columns, with shops, exedras and latrines and washing places. On it inconceivable numbers of slaves must have been traded, for during part of its history Side was a major center for pirates who stationed their fleet here. At its center, there is a round temple, well-restored, that was dedicated to the protective goddess of the city, Tyche. The present construction dates from the 2nd century A.D. and was still in use in Byzantine times.Temple of Tyche

RP88909. Bronze 10 assaria, SNG PfPs 830 (same dies), SNG BnF 906 (same dies, countermarked E), SNG Cop 428, Waddington 3491, SNGvA -, SNG Righetti -, BMC Lycia -, Lindgren -, VF, porosity, rough areas, obverse die damage at center and edge at 2:00, weight 15.101 g, maximum diameter 30.9 mm, die axis 45o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠO ΛI * ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, star above dividing legend, IA (mark of value) right; reverse CI∆H NEΩKOPΩN, Tyche seated left on rocks, wearing mural crown, pomegranate on stem downward in right hand; zero sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; very rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

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A neocorate was a honor granted by the Roman Senate and the Roman Emperor to certain cities which had built temples to the Emperor or had established cults dedicated to members of the Imperial family. The city itself was referred to as neokoros (pl. neokoroi). A temple dedicated to the emperor was also called neocorate. These titles came from the Greek word νεωκορος, literally a temple-sweeper (νεως, temple, κορειν, to sweep), and was also used for a temple attendant and for a priestly holder of high rank who was in charge of a temple. The first city to use the title was Ephesus for its Temple of the Sebastoi. Starting in the 2nd century A.D., the title appeared on many coins. There were approximately 37 cities holding the neocorate, concentrated in the province of Asia, but also in neighboring provinces.
RP88912. Bronze 10 assaria, SNG BnF 901, SNG Fitzwilliam 5112, Waddington 3498, SNG PfPs -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG Righetti -, SNG Hunterian -, BMC Lycia -, Lindgren -, VF, well centered, porous, weight 15.370 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, die axis 30o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, sole reign, 260 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠOY ΛI EΓNA ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEB, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass, arrow right below, I (mark of value) before; reverse CI∆HTΩN, NE/ΩKO/PΩN in three lines within laurel wreath; only one sale recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; very rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

Click for a larger photo
The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate. Next comes the colonnaded street, all that remains of the marble columns are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of a round Temple of Tyche in the middle. The agora was a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theater, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored. The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. The photograph right is of ruins of the temple of Apollo.Temple of Apollo

RP88914. Bronze 5 assaria, cf. BMC Lycia p. 160, 109 (no altar, obliterated by c/m?); SNG PfPs -; SNG BnF -; SNGvA -; SNG Righetti -; Lindgren -; c/m: Howgego 805 (169 pcs.), aVF, obverse die break at 3:00, porosity, countermark poorly struck sparing obliteration of the altar, the only example with a visible altar known to FORVM, weight 15.070 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 45o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠOY ΛI ΓAΛΛIHNOC CE, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass, star above; countermark on right: E (5 assaria) in 7.5mm round punch obliterating IA (prior mark of value); reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPΩN, Apollo standing front, head left, wearing short chiton, chlamys and boots, patera in right hand, left hand rests on laurel tipped staff, small flaming altar at feet on left; only one sale recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades (also with an apparently obliterated altar); very rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
 


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Hercules is depicted in the same pose as the Farnese Hercules, a massive marble sculpture, which depicts a muscular yet weary Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He has just performed the last of The Twelve Labors, which is suggested by the apples of the Hesperides he holds behind his back. The Farnese Hercules is probably an enlarged copy made in the early third century A.D., signed by Glykon, from an original by Lysippos that would have been made in the fourth century B.C. The copy was made for the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 AD), where it was recovered in 1546. Today it is in Naples National Archaeological Museum. The statue was well liked by the Romans, and copies have been found in many Roman palaces and gymnasiums.
RA89689. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1616i, RSC IV 1320d, SRCV III 10415, RIC V-1 S673 var. (draped and cuirassed not listed), Choice EF, sharp detail, excellent centering, toned silvering, weight 3.843 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 264 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVGVSTI (to the valor of the Emperor), Hercules standing right, right hand on hip, left hand holding lion skin and resting on a club set on rock, star in exergue; ex Beast Coins; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
 


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The "zoo series" of coins calling on Diana to protect the Emperor was struck late in Gallienus' reign. His father, Valerian, had been particularly dedicated to the worship of Diana the Preserver and had dedicated a temple to her at Rome. Diana apparently did not favor Gallienus. Not long after this coin was struck, he was assassinated near Milan while attempting to deal with the usurper Aureolus.
RB91182. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 728z, RIC V-1 S176, RSC IV 153, SRCV III 10199, EF, traces of silvering, tight flan, weight 2.712 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), doe walking right with head turned back left, E in exergue; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

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Obverse countermarked with E in circular punch, 7.5 mm. Howgego 805 (169 pcs). The coin was devalued to 5 assaria, likely at the same time when, during the sole reign of Gallienus, coins bearing the denomination "I" (i.e. 10 assaria) were issued.
RP88908. Bronze 5 assaria, SNG BnF 917, SNG Pfalz 833, SNGvA -, SNG Cop -, SNG Righetti -, BMC Lycia -; Lindgren -; c/m: Howgego 805 (169 pcs), VF, some die wear/damage, edge crack, porosity, weight 16.318 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 45o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI * ΠO ΛI ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEB (clockwise starting at 9:00), laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, star above dividing legend; countermark on right: E (5 assaria) in 7.5mm round punch obliterating prior mark of value IA (10 assarion); reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPΩN, Athena Nikephoros standing facing, head left, wearing a crested Corinthian helmet, long chiton and peplos, Nike offering wreath in Athena's extended right hand, left hand on grounded shield; zero sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades, we could not find another example online; very rare; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

Click for a larger photo
The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are two agoras: a commercial agora and the "state" agora. The commercial agora is over 8000 square meters, surrounded by columns, with shops, exedras and latrines and washing places. On it inconceivable numbers of slaves must have been traded, for during part of its history Side was a major center for pirates who stationed their fleet here. At its center, there is a round temple, well-restored, that was dedicated to the protective goddess of the city, Tyche. The present construction dates from the 2nd century A.D. and was still in use in Byzantine times.Temple of Tyche

RP88917. Bronze 5 assaria, SNG Pfalz 823; SNG BnF 922; BMC Lycia p. 161, 117; Waddington 3495; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -; SNG Righetti -; Lindgren -; c/m: Howgego 805 (169 pcs.), VF, broad flan, porous, edge crack (from counter-marking?), weight 13.494 g, maximum diameter 30.0 mm, die axis 180o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠO ΛI ΓAΛΛIHNOC CE (AI in error, should be ΛI, but error is normal for this type), laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass, eagle right below with wings open; countermark on right: E (5 assaria) in 7.5mm round punch obliterating IA (prior mark of value); reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPΩ, draped bust of Tyche right, wearing veil and mural crown, pomegranate on branch right (not fully struck) below; scarce; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

Click for a larger photo
The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are two agoras: a commercial agora and the "state" agora. The commercial agora is over 8000 square meters, surrounded by columns, with shops, exedras and latrines and washing places. On it inconceivable numbers of slaves must have been traded, for during part of its history Side was a major center for pirates who stationed their fleet here. At its center, there is a round temple, well-restored, that was dedicated to the protective goddess of the city, Tyche. The present construction dates from the 2nd century A.D. and was still in use in Byzantine times.Temple of Tyche

RP88916. Bronze 5 assaria, SNG Pfalz 835, SNG BnF 918, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG Righetti -, BMC Lycia -; c/m: Howgego 805 (169 pcs.), VF, broad flan, porosity, weight 17.498 g, maximum diameter 30.1 mm, die axis 180o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠOY ΛI ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEB, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass, star above dividing legend; countermark on right: E (5 assaria) in 7.5mm round punch obliterating IA (prior mark of value); reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPOC, draped bust of Tyche right, wearing mural crown; only three sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; scarce; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

Click for a larger photo
The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate. Next comes the colonnaded street, all that remains of the marble columns are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of a round Temple of Tyche in the middle. The agora was a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theater, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored. The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. The photograph right is of ruins of the temple of Apollo.Temple of Apollo

RP88913. Bronze 5 assaria, SNG Cop 4844 (same obv. die), SNG BnF 924, BMC Lycia p. 160, 110, SNG Pfalz -, SNG Cop -, SNG Righetti -, Lindgren -; c/m: Howgego 805 (169 pcs), VF, well centered on a broad flan, porous, weight 17.834 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, die axis 30o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠOY ΛI ΓAΛΛIHNOC CE, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass, eagle right with wings open below; countermark on right: E (5 assaria) in 7.5mm round punch obliterating IA (prior mark of value); reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPΩN, Apollo standing front, head left, wearing short chiton, chlamys and boots, patera in right hand, left hand rests on laurel tipped staff, pomegranate on branch right; scarce; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00
 




  



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

IMPCAESGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVGCOSV
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGER
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGERM
IMPBALLIENVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERS
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFEL
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG
IMPGALLIENVSVAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENAEAVGVSTAE
GALLIENVMAVGPR
GALLIENVMAVGSENATVS
GALLIENVMPRINC
GALLIENVMSENATVS
GALLIENVSAVG
GALLIENVSAVGGERM
GALLIENVSAVGGERMV
GALLIENVSPAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
GALLIENVSPIVSAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG


REFERENCES

Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Bourdel, B. Les Antoniniens emis sous le regne conjoint des empereurs Valerien et Gallien, Mariniane, Salonine, Valerien II, Salonin (253-260 Apr. J.-C.). (2017).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. (London, 1988).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham, and P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Wednesday, June 26, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Gallienus