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Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.RB76153. Orichalcumsestertius, Göbl MIR 38dd, RIC V 248, Cohen V 1293, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 10495, Nice gVF, excellent portrait, green patina, tight flan cutting off much legend, weight 10.962 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right; reverseVIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Virtus standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded shield, inverted spear vertical behind in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $630.00 SALE PRICE $567.00
In 257 A.D. the Franks invaded Gaul, reaching as far as Spain, where they destroyed Terraco (Tarragona). Also, the Alamanii invaded Italy, but Gallienus defeated them near Milan. In 258, Gallienus created a permanent mobile army from a number of cavalry vexillations to act as a standing reserve force.RS64095. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 879l, RSC IV 895, RIC V J29, SRCV III 10339, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS • P • F • AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseRESTIT GALLIAR, Gallienus standing half left, in military dress, cloaked, spear in left, raising kneeling Gallia with right; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
This coin was dedicated to the fidelity of the Pretorian Guard or perhaps to "the leaders." In either case, in the end, Gallienus lost the fidelity of his guard and officers. He was ambushed and murdered by his own men. The future emperors ClaudiusGothicus and Aurelian were likely both involved in the conspiracy leading to his assassination.RA90710. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 518d, RIC V S568 (Siscia), RSC IV 216 (Siscia), SRCV III 10211, Hunter IV p. lx, Normanby -, VF/F, nice portrait, well centered, ragged tight flan cutting off the tops of legend letters, flan cracks, some corrosion, weight 2.035 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 262 - 263 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiatehead right; reverseFIDEI PRAET, legionary aquila (eagle) between two legionary standards, the standards on the left topped with a wreath, the standards on the right topped with an open hand; RIC lists this type as common but market evidence clearly indicates it is rare; rare; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Amphipolis, Macedonia
Amphipolis was on the Via Egnatia, the principal Roman across southern Balkans. In 50, the apostle Paul visited Amphipolis on his way to Thessaloniki. Many Christian churches were built indicating prosperity, but the region grew increasingly dangerous. In the 6th century, the population had declined considerably and the old perimeter was no longer defensible against Slavic invasions. The lower city was plundered for materials to fortify the Acropolis. In the 7th century, a new wall was built, right through the bath and basilica, dividing the Acropolis. The remaining artisans moved to houses and workshops built in the unused cisterns of the upper city. In the 8th century, the last inhabitants probably abandoned the city and moved to nearby Chrysopolis (formerly Eion, once the port of Amphipolis).RP79943. Bronze AE 25, Varbanov III 3315 (R4); AMNG III p. 43, 89; BMC Macedonia p. 60, 140 var. (obv.legend); SNG Cop 122; SNG ANS -; SNG Righetti -, aVF, obverse slightly off center, some legend weak, porous, weight 9.199 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse AVT ΠO ΛIKIN EΓ ΓAΛΛHNOC (OC ligate), radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse AMΦIΠOΛEITΩN, City-goddess seated left on high-backed throne, kalathos on head, statue of Artemis Tauropolos in extended right hand, cornucopia in left hand, fish left in exergue; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.RA71411. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1354i, RIC V S512, Cohen V 932, SRCV III -, EF, no wear but small areas of light corrosion, well centered on tight flan, weight 3.373 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseSALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing right, feeding snake in right from patera in left, MS in exergue; $135.00 SALE PRICE $122.00
Lot of 5 All Different Gallienus Silver or BillonAntoniniani
SP65580. Silver Lot, Lot of 5 silver or billonantoniniani of Gallienus, no duplicate types, Fine or better, mostly nice coins with good metal for this emperor, coins in each 5 coin lot were selected from same lot as the coins in the photo; as-is, no returns, 5 coins; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00
This coin was dedicated to Gallienus' good relations with the army. Gallienus eventually fell out of harmony with his guard and officers. He was ambushed and murdered by his own men. The future emperors ClaudiusGothicus and Aurelian were likely both involved in the conspiracy leading to his assassination.SH77278. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 15u, RIC V J132, RSC IV 131a, SRCV III 10190, Hunter IV J3, Choice VF, excellent portrait, good metal, well centered, ragged flan, flatly struck centers, weight 3.700 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 254 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right, from the front; reverse CONCORDIAE EXERCIT (Harmony with the army), Concordia standing facing, head left, patera in right hand, double cornucopia in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $115.00 SALE PRICE $104.00
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
RIC lists this type as common, but Göbl lists only a single specimen, and Coin archives lists only one from the first officina and none from the second.RA71050. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1212f (1 example), RIC V S494, Cohen V 686, Cunetio -, VF, uneven toning, light corrosion, weight 1.781 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiatehead right; reverseORIENS AVG (the rising sun of the Emperor), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S in exergue; rare; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00
In 257, Valerian's persecution of Christians began. His edict ordered bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibited Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.RS67084. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 870f, RIC V J22 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 397 (Lugdunum), SRCV III 10246, VF, full circles strike, grainy, weight 4.421 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 45o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI VICTORI, Jupiter standing slightly left on cippus inscribed IMP C E S (Imperator cum exercitu suo - the Emperor with his army), Victory in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand; $105.00 SALE PRICE $95.00
Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. For a time at least, it appears Jupiter favored Gallienus. He ruled for another 14 years, which was a long reign in the age of the Thirty Pretenders. Alas, it seems every emperor eventually fell from favor since none of them are alive today.RA64622. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 26u, RIC V J143, RSC IV 377, SRCV III 10241, VF, toned, centered, flat centers, weight 3.501 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Aug 253 - Aug 254 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing facing, nude but for cloak behind, head left, thunderbolt in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; rare; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00
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