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Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, Tetrarch 63 - 59 B.C., King 59 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB88403. Bronze AE 27, SNGvA 6103 (same countermark); Arslan K4; SNG BnF 2333; BMC Galatia p. 1, 1; HGC 7 774 (R2); see RPC I p. 536, aVF, countermark VF, dark brown and green patina, off center, reverse flattened opposite countermark, weight 12.715 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Phrygian mint, 59 - 40 B.C.; obverse bust of winged Nike right, hair in a bunch behind; countermark: turreted head of Tyche in round punch; reverse eagle standing right on a sheathed sword, wings open, head turned back left, flanked by pilei of the Dioscuri each with a star above, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, ∆HIOTAPOV below; very rare; $350.00 (€308.00)
Kings of Paphlagonia, Pylaimenes Euergetes, c. 140 - 89 B.C.
In Greek mythology, Pylaemenes was the king of the Eneti tribe of Paphlagonia (a much earlier king, not the king named on this coin). He claimed to be related to Priam through Phineus, as the latter's daughter Olizone was married to Dardanus. He led his Paphlagonian forces to the Trojan War, as a Trojan ally. Pylaemenes was killed in battle by Menelaus of Sparta. He had a son named Harpalion who was killed by Meriones, son of Molus.
The King Pylaemenes Euergetes named on this coin may have been Pylaimenes II (ruled c. 140 - 130 B.C.), who bequeathed his kingdom to Pontus, or Pylaimenes III (ruled c. 108 - 89 B.C.), a son of Nicomedes III, King of Bithynia. The kerykeion symbolized peace and alliance and perhaps indicated that Pylaimenes III desired close relations with Rome.GB77131. Bronze AE 18, SNG BM 1555; SNGvA 150; Rec Gen I, p. 127 and pl. XVII, 3; BMC Pontus p. 103, 2 and pl. XXIII, 12; SNG Cop -; BMC Stancomb -, VF, well struck, green patina, a little rough, weight 3.905 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, c. 140 - 89 B.C.; obverse head of bull facing; reverse winged kerykeion, BAΣIΛEΩΣ − ΠYΛAIMENOY / EΨEPΓEOY in three downward lines, the first line on the right, concave field; rare; $120.00 (€105.60)
Kingdom of Commagene, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 38 - 72 A.D.
Commagene was located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (the site is now flooded by the Atatürk Dam). Antiochus IV was an ally of Rome against Parthia and the last royal descendant of Seleucus. He ruled with his half-sister and queen Iotape. He was deprived of his kingdom after accusations that he was conspiring against Rome. He retired to Rome where he was treated with great respect for the remainder of his life.GB89157. Bronze AE 27, RPC I 3857; Nercessian AC 200; BMC Galatia pg. 106, 7; Lindgren-Kovacs 1882, F, dark patina, corrosion, tight flan, straight edges, weight 15.527 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, Samosata (site now flooded by the Atatürk Dam) mint, 38 - 72 A.D.; obverse BACIΛEYΣ AΣ ANTIOXOΣ, diademed beardless bust of Antiochos IV right; reverse KOMMA-ΓHNON, scorpion and inscription within linear inner border, surrounded by laurel-wreath and dot border; $100.00 (€88.00)
Kingdom of Commagene, Epiphanes and Callinicus, 72 A.D.
In 72 A.D., only two years after Antiochus IV, King of Commagene, sent troops, commanded by his son Epiphanes, to aid Titus in the siege of Jerusalem, he was accused by the governor of Syria of conspiring with Parthia against Rome. After a reign of thirty-four years from his first appointment by Caligula, Antiochus was deprived of his kingdom. He retired first to Sparta, and then to Rome, where he passed the remainder of his life and was treated with great respect. Antiochus' sons, Epiphanes and Callinicus briefly ruled the kingdom but after an encounter with Roman troops, fled to Parthia. They later joined their father in Rome.SH90336. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 3861; BMC Galatia p. 110, 1 ff.; De Luynes 3440; SGICV 5515, F, dark patina, red earthen deposits, weight 7.954 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 45o, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey) mint, 72 A.D.; obverse Epiphanes and Callinicus riding left on horseback, each wearing chlamys, BACIΛEΩC / YIOI in exergue; reverse KOMMAΓHNΩN, Capricorn right, star above, anchor flukes left below, all within laurel wreath, border of dots; ex John Jencek; $90.00 (€79.20)
Kingdom of Epirus, c. 280/270 - 235 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in Apulia. Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his victory, he famously replied: "Another such victory and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrrhic victory, a victory achieved at ruinous cost.GI87401. Bronze AE 20, Franke, group X, 72 var. (V-/R66); BMC Thessaly p. 88, 5; HGC 3 166 (S); SNG Cop -; SNG München, VF, green patina, soft reverse strike, weight 4.825 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 270o, Epeiros mint, c. 280/270 - 235 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus left; reverse thunderbolt, A/Π (Apeirotes) above and below, all in oak wreath; rare; $80.00 (€70.40)