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Euboia, separated from the mainland of Greece by the narrow Euripus channel, is the second largest Greek island, after Crete. It was an important source of grain and cattle. Euboia's two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, both were Ionian settlements from Attica. Their early importance is shown by their numerous colonies in Magna Graecia, Sicily, and Macedonia. In 490 B.C., Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants transported to Persia. It was restored after the Battle of Marathon, but it never regained its former eminence. In 506 B.C., Athens defeated Chalcis, established 4,000 Attic settlers, and reduced the island to dependence. In 446 B.C., when Euboia endeavored to throw off the yoke, it was reduced by Pericles. In the north, the inhabitants of Histiaea were expelled and replaced by settlers. The Athenians recognized its importance, for supplying them with grain and cattle and, because of its proximity to the coast of Attica, for securing their commerce against piracy. In 410 B.C. the island regained its independence. After this Euboia took sides with other leading states, until, after the Battle of Chaeronea, it passed to Philip II of Macedon, and finally to Rome.
Histiaia, Euboia, Greece, c. 4th - 3rd Century B.C.
Histiaia, named after its patron nymph, commanded a strategic position overlooking the narrows leading to the North Euboian Gulf. In the Iliad, Homer describes the surrounding plain as "rich in vines." In the early 4th century B.C., Histiaia seems to have been largely under the control of Sparta until they joined the Second Athenian Confederacy in 376 - 375. The city appears to have become a member (for the first time) of the reconstituted league of Euboian cities in 340, but its allegiance during most of the 4th century seems to have vacillated between Athens and Macedonia.GB79919. Bronze AE 12, BCD Euboia 455; BMC Central p. 125, 9; SNG Cop 537 var. (control), F, corrosion, pitting, weight 2.325 g, maximum diameter 12.2 mm, die axis 90o, Histiaia (near Oreoi, Greece) mint, c. 4th - 3rd century B.C.; obversehead of nymph Histiaia right, rolled hair, wearing wreath of ivy, pendant earring and necklace; reverse bull standing right, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above, IΣTI below; rare; $50.00 (€42.50)
The Euboian League and Its Coinage (NNM 134)
The Euboian League was in existence for nearly five hundred years (from the fifth century B.C. to the time of the emperor Claudius or later) is referred to definitely only in one passage of Aischines, and in a few inscriptions. The League issued coins enabling us to date its foundation.BK10896. The Euboian League And Its Coinage by W.P. Wallace, The American Numismatic Society, Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 134, 1956, 180 pages, 16 plates, one copy available; $20.00 (€17.00)
Macedonian Kingdom, Demetrius I Poliorketes, 306 - 283 B.C.
The bull's horns suggest Demetrius' relationship to Poseidon is the same as Alexander's to Zeus Ammon. The portrait is individualized, but evokes the image of Alexander. Demetrios was the first to assimilate elements of Alexander's deified portrait and the first living ruler to portray himself as a god on coins. SH55017. Silver tetradrachm, Newell 153; cf. SNG Alpha Bank 950 ff., SNG Berry 335 ff., SNG Ashmolean 3248 ff., SNG Munchen 1045 ff., SNG Cop 1176 ff. (different controls & mints), VF, weight 16.741 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 225o, Euboea, uncertain mint, c. 290 - 287 B.C.; obverse Demetrios diademed head right with horns of a bull, the animal sacred to Demetrios' patron deity, Poseidon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ∆HMHTPIOY, Poseidon standing left, right foot on rock, trident in left (apparently inspired by the Lateran Poseidon, a statue by Lysippos, court sculptor of Alexander), monogram inner left; rare; SOLD
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