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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Medieval & Modern Coins ▸ GreeceView Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of Greece

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles I of Anjou, 1278 - 1285

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Charles I (early 1226/1227 – 7 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou. He was Count of Provence (1246–85) and Forcalquier (1246–48, 1256–85) in the Holy Roman Empire, Count of Anjou and Maine (1246–85) in France; he was also King of Sicily (1266–85) and Prince of Achaea (1278–85). In 1272, he was proclaimed King of Albania; and in 1277 he purchased a claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.Carlos_I

CR88453. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 950; Tzamalis Frankish KA203; Malloy Crusaders 11 (S), VF, toned, small edge cracks, overstruck on an earlier coin(?), weight 0.680 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 270o, Corinth mint, 1278 - 1285; obverse + ▼K• R• PRINC' ACH' (R with wedge shaped foot = Corinth mint), cross pattée; reverse ▼CLARENCIA▼(R with wedge shaped foot = Corinth mint), castle tournois surmounted by cross; from the Louis G Estate; scarce variety; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289

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Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as Sicily (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese hands. In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean nobility. Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in part to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.Frankokratia_Map

CR88454. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 12 (S); Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 942; Tzamalis Frankish KA101; Schlumberger XII 17, VF, toned, light marks, weight 0.974 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 90o, Clarentza mint, 1281 - 1289; obverse + • K• R• PRINC ACh• (curly foot R = Clarentza mint), cross pattée; reverse :DE: CLARENCIA: (colons indicate double x stops, DE probably abbreviates denarius, curly foot R = Clarentza mint), castle tournois surmounted by a cross; from the Louis G Estate; scarce; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Florent of Hainaut, 1289 - 1297

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Florent of Hainaut was Prince of Achaea in right of his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin. He was the son of John I of Avesnes and Adelaide of Holland. From his father he received the stadholdership of Zeeland. After he left Zeeland, he took up service with Charles II of Naples, who made him constable of the Kingdom of Naples. Florent settled with his wife in Morea. He negotiated the Treaty of Glarentsa with the Byzantine Empire in 1290; however, the situation for the Franks in Greece was hopeless by this time. The fall of the Angevins in Sicily meant that they were preoccupied with recouping territory there and few Western governments would send troops to defend Morea. Florent thus made peace and maintained it until 1293, when the Greeks retook Kalamata. Florent did not despair and did not reopen the war which had been ongoing until his succession: he instead sent an embassy in protest to Andronikos II Palaiologos, and the emperor returned Kalamata. In 1296, the Greeks retook the castle of Saint George in Arcadia. Florent besieged the castle, but died before it could be taken.
CR88457. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 13c; Metcalf Crusades type F4, pl. 39, 961, VF, well centered, toned, weight 0.785 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Clarentza mint, 1289 - 1297; obverse + ⚜ FLORENS P Ach B, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA', castle tournois surmounted by a cross; from the Louis G Estate; very rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, William or Minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1280 - 1294

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This type was minted either under William de La Roche, 1280 - 1287, or during the minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1287 - 1294. William I de la Roche succeeded his brother, John I, as Duke of Athens in 1280. William reversed the territorial losses of his brother's reign, extending his control over Lamia and Gardiki. He married Helena Angelina Komnene, daughter of John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly, securing a military alliance with him.
CR88467. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades 1030, Malloy Crusaders 85, VF, toned, clashed dies, weight 0.756 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 105o, Thebes mint, perhaps minority of Guy I de La Roch, 1280 - 1294; obverse +:G:DVX:ATENES: (: = double trefoil stop, trefoils resembling Y), cross pattée; reverse :ThEBE:CIVIS: (: = double trefoil stop, trefoils resembling Y), castle tournois with open corner circles, surmounted by cross, distinctive style; from the Louis G Estate; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, William or Minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1280 - 1294

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This is believed to be the earliest William or Guy denier variety, so more likely struck under William than other types. The arches on the castle are very unusual. William I de la Roche succeeded his brother, John I, as Duke of Athens in 1280. William reversed the territorial losses of his brother's reign, extending his control over Lamia and Gardiki. He married Helena Angelina Komnene, daughter of John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly, securing a military alliance with him.
CR88468. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 83 (R), Metcalf Crusades GR101, pl. 41, 1025 var. (stops), VF, tight flan, uneven strike, weight 0.097 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 195o, Thebes mint, perhaps minority of Guy I de La Roch, 1280 - 1294; obverse +;G:DVX:DATENES: (; = double trefoil stop, : = double pellet stop), cross pattée; reverse ;ThEBE:CIVIS: (; = double trefoil stop, : = double pellet stop), castle tournois, 2 arches, open circles on corners, surmounted by cross; from the Louis G Estate; rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318

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This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. In 1313, Philip I of Taranto, in compensation for breaking their engagement, granted Achaea to Maud and gave her hand to Louis of Burgundy. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed and Louis took control. He was poisoned soon after, leaving 23-year-old Maud in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to Aversa, where she died in 1331.
CR88477. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 40 (this coin); Metcalf Crusades type MA2 var. (lis beginning of reverse legend, no annulet right, Corinth), VF, toned, centered, clashed dies, weight 0.739 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 30o, Clarentza(?) mint, 1316 - 1318; obverse + MAhAVTA•P•Ach, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA (R with small foot = Clarentza?), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, C left, annulet right, no cross below; from the Louis G Estate; very rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Isabella of Villehardouin, 1297 - 1301

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This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. Isabella of Villehardouin was the elder daughter of William II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, and of his third wife Anna. She was sovereign princess of Achaia from 1289 to 1307. She minted coins in her own name only between her marriages to her second husband, Florent, and her third husband, Philip of Savoy. Metcalf notes this issue was a recoinage beginning in 1299, intended to achieve parity with the Athenian tournois.
CR88471. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades type Y1, pl. 39, 692; Malloy Crusaders 15a; Schlumberger XII 19, VF, toned, clashed dies, weight 0.738 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, Clarentza mint, 1299 - 1301; obverse +⚜YSABELL•P•AChB (E, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIAI, castle tournois; from the Louis G Estate; $145.00 (€123.25)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318

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This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. In 1313, Philip I of Taranto, in compensation for breaking their engagement, granted Achaea to Maud and gave her hand to Loius of Burgundy. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed and Louis took control. He was poisoned soon after, leaving 23-year-old Maud in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to Aversa, where she died in 1331.
CR88473. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades MA1c; Malloy Crusaders 36, VF, toned, tight flan, edge cracks, light deposits, weight 0.876 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Clarentza(?) mint, 1316 - 1318; obverse + MAhAVTA•P•Ach, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA (R with a small thin foot = Clarentza?), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, annulet left, three branched plant between two small pellets below; from the Louis G Estate; $145.00 (€123.25)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, Guy II de La Roche, 1287 - 1308

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Guy II de la Roche was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance. Guy was originally under the tutorship and regency of his mother, Helena Angelina Komnene, who was forced to make submission to Isabella of Villehardouin. In 1299, Guy was engaged to Matilda, daughter of Isabella and and her husband, Florent of Hainaut. Charles objected, as his permission had not been sought, but Pope Boniface VIII intervened on the young couple's behalf. In 1307, Guy was made bailli of Achaea by its new prince, Philip I of Taranto. He governed well, but for barely a year. He died, 5 October 1308, at the age of twenty-eight, but was respected and renowned for his chivalry and manners.
CR88462. Billon denier, Metcalf Crusades 1b & pl. 42, 1064; Malloy Crusaders 94, aVF, toned, clashed dies, a little off center, uneven shifted strike, tiny edge split, weight 0.698 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 165o, Thebes mint, majority, 1294 - 1308; obverse +:GVIDVX:ATENES:, cross pattée; reverse :ThEBAHI:CIVIS:, castle tournois, surmounted by cross; from the Louis G Estate; $140.00 (€119.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Florent of Hainaut, 1289 - 1297

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Florent of Hainaut was Prince of Achaea in right of his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin. He was the son of John I of Avesnes and Adelaide of Holland. From his father he received the stadholdership of Zeeland. After he left Zeeland, he took up service with Charles II of Naples, who made him constable of the Kingdom of Naples. Florent settled with his wife in Morea. He negotiated the Treaty of Glarentsa with the Byzantine Empire in 1290; however, the situation for the Franks in Greece was hopeless by this time. The fall of the Angevins in Sicily meant that they were preoccupied with recouping territory there and few Western governments would send troops to defend Morea. Florent thus made peace and maintained it until 1293, when the Greeks retook Kalamata. Florent did not despair and did not reopen the war which had been ongoing until his succession: he instead sent an embassy in protest to Andronikos II Palaiologos, and the emperor returned Kalamata. In 1296, the Greeks retook the castle of Saint George in Arcadia. Florent besieged the castle, but died before it could be taken.
CR88455. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 13a; Metcalf Crusades variety F2, pl. 39, 956; Schlumberger XII 18, VF, toned, die wear, weight 0.829 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 270o, Clarentza mint, 1289 - 1297; obverse + FLORENS P Ach (curly foot R = Clarentza mint), cross pattée, drooping bell shaped flower with two buds following legend (a pun on the prince's name?); reverse DE CLARENCIA' (curly foot R = Clarentza mint), castle tournois, concave gable, surmounted by a cross; from the Louis G Estate; very scarce; $120.00 (€102.00)
 




  



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REFERENCES

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Friedberg, A. & I. Friedberg. Gold Coins of the World, From Ancient Times to the Present. (2009).
Gamberini, C. Le imitazioni e la contraffazioni monetarie nel mondo. (Bologna, 1971).
Grierson, P. Byzantine Coins. (London, 1999).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Ives, H. The Venetian Gold Ducat and its Imitations. ANSNNM 128. (New York, 1954).
Malloy, A., I. Preston, & A. Seltman. Coins of the Crusader States, 2nd Edition. (New York, 2004).
Marchev, V. & R. Wachter. Catalogue of the Late Byzantine coins, Vol. I, 1082 - 1261 AD. (Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 2011).
Metcalf, D. Coinage of the Crusaders and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. (London, 1995).
Metcalf, D. "The Pylia Hoard: Denier Tournois of Frankish Greece" in MN 17 (New York, 1971).
Morrisson, C. Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines de la Bibliothèque Nationale. (Paris, 1970).
Paolucci, R. The Coinage of the Doges of Venice, 2nd Edition. (Padova, 2001).
Ratto, R. Monnaies Byzantines et d'autre Pays contemporaines à l'époque byzantine. (Lugano, 1930).
Schlumberger, G. Numismatique de l'Orient latin. (1878; Supplement 1882; reprinted: Graz, 1954).
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Stahl, A. The Venetian tornesello: A medieval colonial coinage. ANSNNM 163. (New York, 1985).
Tzamalis, A. "Addition to the tornesia of the 1st group of Guillaume de Villehardouin" in NK 11 (1992).
Tzamalis, A. "The first period of the Frankish tornesio. New evidence from an old hoard" in NK 9-10 (1990-1991).

Catalog current as of Monday, March 25, 2019.
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Greek Coins