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Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112
This type was struck while Bohemond I was in captivity. It was the first type struck by Tancred. The order in which his types were struck has been firmly established by frequent overstrikes of later issues on earlier coins.
St. Peter is the patron saint of Antioch.CR85716. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades 52, Malloy Crusaders 3a, Schlumberger II 6, aVF, nice green patina, tight flan, earthen deposits, some light corrosion, weight 3.025 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch mint, obversebust of St. Peter facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / PE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI/ΘH TO ∆V / ΛO COV TANKPI+ (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; $180.00 (€153.00)
Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Roger of Salerno, Regent, 1112 - 1119
Roger of was regent of the Principality of Antioch from 1112 until his death on 28 June 1119. Roger became regent of Antioch when Tancred died. The prince, Bohemund II, was still a child. Like Tancred, Roger was almost constantly at war with the nearby Muslim states such as Aleppo. In 1114 an earthquake destroyed many of his fortifications but Roger took great care to rebuild them. The Artquids allied with Aleppo and invaded in 1119. Despite the urging of the Patriarch, Roger did not wait for reinforcements from Jerusalem or Tripoli. Roger and nearly all of his 700 knights and 3000 foot soldiers were killed. Artquids forces plundered the land but did not attack Antioch itself. Baldwin II of Jerusalem came north to take over the regency.CR85709. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades 95 - 101, Malloy Crusaders 9, Schlumberger II 12, aVF, green patina with earthen fill, overstruck on Malloy Crusaders 8, weight 3.180 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Roger's 3rd issue; obverse St. George riding on horseback right, nimbate, spearing dragon below, OA monogram upper left, Γ/EW/P upper right; reverse POT3EP / ΠPIΓKΠ/OC ANT/IOK in four lines, cross above; $150.00 (€127.50)
Republic of Venice, Doge Lorenzo Tiepolo, 1268 - 1275
Lorenzo Tiepolo was the son of Doge Jacopo Tiepolo. Tiepolo demonstrated skill as commander when he defeated the Genoese at Acre in 1257. Although beloved by the population, his nepotism towards his sons, brought hostility from the nobility. In 1270, a peace treaty with Genoa confirmed Venetian predominance in the Adriatic; however, in that same year, commercial disputes grew to war between Venice and a league of Italian cities including Bologna, Treviso, Verona, Mantua, Ferrara, Cremona, Recanati, and Ancona. After an initial setback, the Venetians gained the upper hand and the terms of peace were favorable. Under Tiepolo, in 1273, Marco Polo began his journey to China. (He would return in 1295.) Tiepolo died in Venice in 1275 and was buried with his father in the Dominican Church of San Zanipolo.ME85076. Silver grosso, Papadopoli 1, Biaggi 2778, VF, uneven strike with weak areas, clipped, weight 1.533 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Venice mint, 1268 - 1275; obverse LA TEVPL: - .S M VENETI, Doge, standing on left, wearing corno ducale, receiving tall flag from St. Mark, standing on right, DVX down left side of flag staff; reversenimbate Christ enthroned facing, holding gospels in lap, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: Iισους Xριστος - Jesus Christ) flanking Christ's head; $120.00 (€102.00)
St. Helena, Augusta, 8 November 324 - c. 330 A.D., Mother of Constantine the Great
In the 12th century, Henry of Huntingdon included a passage in his Historia Anglorum that Constantine's mother Helena was a Briton, the daughter of King Cole of Colchester. Geoffrey of Monmouth expanded this story in his highly fictionalized Historia Regum Britanniae, an account of the supposed Kings of Britain from their Trojan origins to the Anglo-Saxon invasion. According to Geoffrey, Cole was King of the Britons when Constantius, here a senator, came to Britain. Afraid of the Romans, Cole submitted to Roman law so long as he retained his kingship. However, he died only a month later, and Constantius took the throne himself, marrying Cole's daughter Helena. They had their son Constantine, who succeeded his father as King of Britain before becoming Roman Emperor. Historically, this series of events is extremely improbable. Constantius had already left Helena by the time he left for Britain. Additionally, no earlier source mentions that Helena was born in Britain, let alone that she was a princess.RL79452. Billon reduced centenionalis, SRCV V 17500 ff. (various mintmarks), EF, nice sharp portrait, attractive glossy green patina, tight flan, edge cracks, areas of slight porosity, weight 1.271 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 337 - 340 A.D.; obverse FL HELENAAVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing necklace; reversePAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left, olive branch pointed down in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, [...]TR[...] in exergue; $80.00 (€68.00)
Empire of Nicaea, Theodore I Komnenos Laskaris, c. 1204 - November 1221 A.D.
Magnesia ad Sipylum (modern Manisa, Turkey) was located in Lydia about 65 km northeast of Smyrna (now Izmir) on the river Hermus (now Gediz) at the foot of Mount Sipylus. The city should not be confused with Magnesia on the Maeander, both founded by colonists from the Greek region of Magnesia. The first famous mention of the city is in 190 B.C., when Antiochus the Great was defeated in the battle of Magnesia by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus. It became a city of importance under Roman rule and, though nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, was restored by that emperor and flourished. It was an important regional center through the Byzantine Empire. During the 13th century interregnum of the Empire of Nicaea, Magnesia housed the Imperial mint, the Imperial treasury, and served as the functional capital of the Empire until the recovery of Constantinople in 1261. Magnesia was one of the few towns in this part of Anatolia which remained prosperous under the Turkish rule.BZ76758. Billon aspron trachynomisma, DOC IV, part 2, 8; Lianta 189; SBCV 2068; Hendy pl. 31, 8; Sommer 69.4; Wroth BMC -; Ratto -, aF, weight 2.910 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 180o, Magnesia ad Sipylum (Manisa, Turkey) mint, c. 1204 - Nov 1221 A.D.; obverse EMMA-NYHΛ, nimbatebust of Christ facing, beardless, scroll in left hand, five pellets in each limb of nimbuscross, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation for Jesus Christ) flanking across field; reverse ΘEO∆WPOC - O - ΘEO∆WPOC, Theodore and St. Theodore standing facing, each with outer hand on sheathed sword and inner hand holding patriarchal cross set on three steps between them; Emperor wears stemma, divitsion, and chlamys; Saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion; this is the first example of this type handled by Forum; scarce; $65.00 (€55.25)
Byzantine Empire, Manuel I Comnenus, 8 April 1143 - 24 September 1180 A.D.
St. George is the Patron Saint of England. Traditionally, the sword with which St. George slew the dragon was called Ascalon, a name recalling the city of Ashkelon, Israel. During World War II, Winston Churchill named his personal aircraft Ascalon, after St. George's sword. BZ45637. Bronze half tetarteron, DOC IV, part 1, 23; Hendy pl. 18, 3; Morrisson BnF 61/X/AE/05; Wroth BMC 78; Ratto 2158; SBCV 1980; Sommer 61.25, VF, nice green patina, flan cracks, weight 1.565 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Greek mint, 1152 - c. 1160 A.D.; obverse Θ / Γ/ε−ωP/ΓI/OC (or similar), bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass, and sagion, spear in right, shield in left; reverse MANYH ∆εCΠOT, Manuel, bust facing, wearing crown and loros, labarum in right, globus cruciger in left; $45.00 (€38.25)
Bulgarian, Imitative of Alexis III, Billon Aspron Trachy, c. 1200 - 1210 A.D.
Greek magnates in Thrace probably issued the earliest "Bulgarian" imitative types in the years immediately following the fall of Constantinople to finance their military operations against the crusaders in northern Greece. When the Bulgarians gained control of Thrace they continued production until sometime between 1215 and 1220, with issues becoming increasingly crude and smaller.BZ79669. Billontrachy, CLBC I 8.3.1.B; Hendy p. 151 & pl. 22, 9 - 12; DOC IV, part 1, 3; Grierson 1136; SBCV 2012, VF, uneven strike, weight 2.848 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 180o, unknown Bulgarian mint, c. 1200 - 1210 A.D.; obverse + KERO HΘEI, beardless nimbatebust of Christ facing, wearing pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, scroll in left hand, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation for Jesus Christ) flanking across field above shoulders; reverse AΛEΣI Θ KWNTAN (or similar), Alexius on left, St. Constantine bearded and nimbate on right, standing facing, each wears crown, divitision and loros; each holding labarum in outer hand, together holding globus cruciger between them; Saint Constantine the Great on the reverse!; $28.00 (€23.80)