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On 22 June 168 B.C., Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus won the decisive Battle of Pydna. Perseus of Macedonia was made prisoner and the Third Macedonian War ended. Paullus executed 500 Macedonians, exiled many more to Italy and confiscated their belongings in the name of Rome but according to Plutarch, keeping too much to himself. On the return to Rome in 167 BC, his legions were displeased with their share of the plunder. To keep them happy, Paullus stopped in Epirus, a kingdom suspected of sympathizing with Macedonia; 70 towns were sacked, 150,000 people enslaved, and the region was left bankrupt. Paullus' return to Rome was glorious. With the immense plunder collected in Macedonia and Epirus, he celebrated a spectacular triumph, featuring the captured king of Macedonia himself. The senate awarded him the cognomen Macedonicus.GB83472. Bronze AE 19, BMC Macedonia p. 48, 40 - 41; AMNG III 51; SNG Cop -; SNG Evelpidis -, Nice VF, attractive style, nice green patina, weight 5.610 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, c. 168 - 149 B.C.; obverse ivy-wreathed head of Dionysos right; reverse goat standing right, AMΦIΠO/ΛEITΩN in two lines, starting above, ending in exergue; scarce; $150.00 (€133.50)
Ainos, Thrace, c. 427 - 424 B.C.
Aenus, Enez, Turkey today, was on the southeastern coast of Thrace, near the mouth of the Hebrus River, not far from the Melas Gulf (modern Gulf of Saros), which is formed by the Thracian Chersonesus to the east. The city was said to be founded (or at least settled) by Aeolian migrants from Lesbos. Its mythical and eponymous founder was said to be Aeneus, a son of the god Apollo and father of Cyzicus. Another mythical ruler, named Poltys, son of Poseidon, entertained Heracles when he came to Aenus. In the Iliad, Homer mentions that the leaders of Troy's Thracian allies, Acamas and Peiros, came from Aenus.GS68735. Silver diobol, May Ainos 176 - 204, AMNG II 303, SNG Cop 405, SNG Lockett 1164, Pozzi 1033, McClean 3892, F, grainy, weight 1.167 g, maximum diameter 10.5 mm, die axis 45o, Ainos (Enez, Turkey) mint, c. 427 - 424 B.C.; obversehead of Hermes right, wearing petasos; reverse AIN, goat standing to right, coiled snake (control symbol) lower right; $110.00 (€97.90)
Himera, Sicily, c. 420 - 409 B.C.
In 409 B.C., Carthage attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from Syracuse, but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of Syracuse itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C. GB67658. Bronze tetras, Calciati I, p. 42, 31; SNG ANS 1339; Laffaille 149; SNG Cop -, aF, weight 2.200 g, maximum diameter 15.2 mm, die axis 90o, Himera (Termini, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 420 - 409 B.C.; obverse Pan on a goat prancing right, nude but for chlamys fluttering in the wind behind, preparing to blow on conch in right, thyrsus in left over shoulder, three pellets under goat between legs; reverse [IMEΠAION], Nike flying left, apluster with dangling fillets in extended right, fold of long chiton in left; $65.00 (€57.85)
Valerian II, Caesar, Early 256 - 258 A.D.
The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida. RA69007. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 907e, SRCV III 10731, RIC V 3 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 26, F, some mint luster, but struck with worn dies, weight 2.903 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 1st emission, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right, from behind; reverseIOVI CRESCENTI, child Jupiter riding right on goat, looking back, raising right hand; $50.00 (€44.50)
Aigai, Aiolis, 3rd Century B.C.
Aegae (or Aigai) means place of goats and was the name of many cities of antiquity. Aegae, Aeolis was located at the mid-point between the modern cities of Ýzmir, Manisa, Bergama and Aliaða. GB90741. Bronze AE 9, SNG Cop 2; SNGvA 1593; BMC Troas p. 95, 7; SGCV II 4166; SNG Munchen -, VF, green patina, weight 0.880 g, maximum diameter 9.3 mm, die axis 135o, Aigai mint, 3rd century B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse AIΓAE, head and neck of goat right; $40.00 (€35.60)