Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $240.00 (€213.60)
(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal of an official Class J . to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME68381. Bronze , apparently unpublished, imitative of class J ( 1900, Constantinople, 1081 - 1118); -, -, -, aF, on a very small thin compared to proto-types, 2.200 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, uncertain S. Italy mint, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.; of Christ facing, behind, wears and colbium, raising right in , Gospels in left, crescents above, flanking, facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; with globule and two pellets at each extremity, large crescent below, four globules around each surrounded by pellets; from an American collection; $140.00 (€124.60)
Empire, Khusro II, Occupation of , 618 - 628 A.D.
During his temporary domination of , 618 - 628 A.D., Khusru allowed the mint to continue issuing the normal coinage, but substituted his portrait for the emperor's. The sun and moon replaced the , just as on coinage. It may seem strange that a Persian would wear a crown surmounted by a ; however, his wife Sira was a Christian, he was a benefactor of the of St. Sergius in Edessa, he honored the Virgin, and he sometimes wore a robe embroidered with a which he had received as a gift from the Emperor . The emperors resumed the imperial coinage of after their recapture of in 628 A.D.WA77071. Bronze 12 nummi,
, Palaestina or , c. 450 - 500 A.D.
This object, from the Alex Malloy Collection, was held by him for decades, only speculatively attributed as probably Islamic. The referenced recent article by Farhi indicates another possible . As discussed by Farhi, in the second half of the 5th century, besides nummi, low-value currency in Palaestina appears to have included similar sized centuries old Jewish , cast Axumite imitations, and even bronze and lead blank flans. Many fragments of lead mirror frames, found over many years, appear to have been cut around decorative star-like or floral patterns to look like coins. They were almost certainly used as coins. The lead mirror frame fragment "coins" in Farhi have different patterns and are blank on one side, but this object is very similar.BZ53343. Lead , fragment of ornamented lead object coinage(?); See Farhi, H. "Note on Two Types of Lead Currency" in INR 8 (2013) for similar examples, 2.836 g, maximum 23.1 mm, ex Collection; $70.00 (€62.30)
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, , c. 680s A.D., Coinage
is the capital of and is now, due to civil war fighting in Aleppo, most likely the largest city of . First settled in the second millennium B.C., was the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman rule, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. today is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant.BZ77975. Bronze fals, 7; 560; 49; 3517.1 (S), -, , porous, 3.449 g, maximum 19.2 mm, 180o, Dimashq ( ) mint, c. 650 A.D.; DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long in left hand, in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; large M (40 nummi), above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM ( ) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $34.00 (€30.26)
Bulgarian, Imitative of Alexis III, Aspron , c. 1204 - 1220 A.D.
Greek magnates in probably issued the earliest "Bulgarian" imitative types in the years immediately following the fall of Constantinople to finance their military operations against the in northern . When the Bulgarians gained control of they continued production until sometime between 1215 and 1220, with issues becoming increasingly crude and smaller.BZ79669. , , p. 218, C, pl. 25, 2(B) (imitative of 2012 of Alexis III, 1195 - 1203 A.D. ), VF, , 2.848 g, maximum 26.5 mm, 180o, + KεRO HΘεI, , beardless of Christ, wearing tunic and , raising right in , scroll in left; ΛΛEΣIW ∆ECΠ Θ TW KOMNHNW (or similar), emperor, on left, and St. Constantine, on right, standing facing, each holds a headed and they hold a between them; Constantine the Great on the !; $32.00 (€28.48)
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, , c. 680s A.D., Coinage
While the Muslims administered the city, the population of remained mostly Christian—Eastern Orthodox and Monophysite—with a growing community of Muslims from Mecca, Medina, and the Syrian Desert. The governor assigned to the city which had been chosen as the capital of Islamic was Mu'awiya I. After the death of Caliph Ali in 661, Mu'awiya was chosen as the caliph of the expanding Islamic empire. Because of the vast amounts of assets his clan, the Umayyads, owned in the city and because of its traditional economic and social links with the Hijaz as well as the Christian Arab tribes of the region, Mu'awiya established as the capital of the entire Caliphate. With the ascension of Caliph Abd al-Malik in 685, an Islamic coinage system was introduced and all of the surplus revenue of the Caliphate's provinces were forwarded to the treasury of . Arabic was also established as the official language, giving the Muslim minority of the city an advantage over the Aramaic-speaking Christians in administrative affairs. It is critical to note that, at the time was conquered by the Muslims, the majority of Arabs were either pagans or Christians. itself was predominantly Aramaic with Arab speaking people.BZ77973. Bronze fals, 7; 560; 49; 3517.1 (S), -, aF, rough, 3.450 g, maximum 17.7 mm, Dimashq ( ) mint, c. 650 A.D.; DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long in left hand, in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; large M (40 nummi), above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM ( ) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $30.00 (€26.70)
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