Dyrrhachion, , , Roman Protectorate, 229 - 30 B.C.
ës, one of the oldest cities in Albania, was founded as Epidamnos in 627 B.C. by from Corinth and Corcyra. Located around a rocky harbor, surrounded by inland swamps and high cliffs, the city was difficult to attack from land or sea. After its defeat to in 229 B.C., the new rulers renamed the city Dyrrachium. Epidamnos is similar to the Latin damnum, meaning "loss." Dyrrhachion is Greek for "bad spine" or "difficult ridge," likely referring to the nearby cliffs. Dyrrachium prospered under and was made a naval and military base. Pompey made a stand there in 48 B.C. before fleeing south to . made the city a colony for veterans of his legions following the Battle of , proclaiming it a libera (free town).GS12075. Silver , 374; p. 73, 118; 433; -, VF, slightly off center, tiny edge cracks, 3.369 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 0o, Dyrrhachium ( ës, Albania) mint, 229 - 100 B.C.; ΠEPIΓENHΣ, cow right, turned back toward suckling calf left, of right above, grain over cluster of grapes right; ∆YP − ΦA−NIΣ−KOY, double stellate pattern within double linear square; ; $200.00 (€178.00)
Iol-Caesarea, , , c. 25 B.C. - 24 A.D.
Phoenicians from founded Iol as a trading station around 400 B.C. It became a of the kingdom of under , c. 160 - 104 B.C. In 29 B.C., Roman emperor made the Numidian and his wife II (daughter of Marc Antony and of ) and queen of . The capital was established at Iol, which was renamed Caesarea in of the emperor.GB85358. Bronze 1/4 Unit, MAA 147; III, p. 177, 290 (uncertain mint); 684 var. ( left), F, dark green , , light corrosion, 2.102 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 270o, Iol-Caesarea (Cherchell, Algeria) mint, c. 25 B.C. - 24 A.D.; of left, wearing vulture crown and horned solar-disk headdress; three ears of barley; extremely ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy VI , 180 - 145 B.C., I Thea as Regent
Ptolemy VI became in 180 B.C. at the age of about 6 and ruled jointly with his mother, I, until her death in 176 BC. From 170 to 164 B.C., was ruled by Ptolemy, his sister-queen and his younger brother Ptolemy Physcon. In 170 BC, the Seleukid Antiochus IV invaded and was even crowned in 168, but abandoned his claim on the orders from . In 164 Ptolemy VI was driven out by his brother. He went to and received support from Cato. He was the following year. In 152 BC, he briefly ruled jointly with his son, Ptolemy , but his son probably died that same year. In 145 B.C. he died of battle wounds received against Alexander Balas of . Ptolemy VI ruled uneasily, cruelly suppressing frequent rebellions.GP84841. Bronze tetrobol, 1384 ( ); 287; 202 (176 - 170 B.C.); 80; p. 89, 6; 147; 319, VF, brown tone, edge crack, , 15.699 g, maximum 27.5 mm, 0o, mint, 180 - 176 B.C.; of ( I as) right, wearing grain , hair in long curls; ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, standing left on thunderbolt, wings open, left, ΠA left; $175.00 (€155.75)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, III and Ptolemy IX II (Lathyros), c. 116 - 110 B.C.
After Ptolemy died in 116 B.C., III ruled with her mother II and son Ptolemy IX. In 110 B.C., she replaced Ptolemy IX as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. Ptolemy IX regained the throne in 109 but was again replaced in 107 B.C. In 101 B.C., Ptolemy X had his mother III murdered and then ruled alone or with his niece and wife, Berenice III.GP66505. Bronze AE 12, 1720 (Ptolemy X), 171, 541, -, -, VF, 1.376 g, maximum 12.1 mm, 45o, Kyrene mint, 116 - 110 B.C.; of Zeus-Ammon right; ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (beginning at 5:00), headdress of , E-W/Θ−Σ across fields; $44.00 (€39.16)
Kyrene, Kyrenaica, , c. 120 - 96 B.C.
From the time of the late reign of Ptolemy to that of Ptolemy Apion. Ptolemy Apion was a son of Ptolemy , perhaps by an Egyptian concubine. This makes him a half-brother of Ptolemy IX and X. He died without an heir and left his kingdom to .GB65943. Bronze , cf. Pl. XLVI, 23 - 25 (Ptolemy V), 438 (Ptolemy IV - , c. 221 - 140 B.C.), VF, green , encrusted, 7.654 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 0o, Kyrene mint, c. 120 - 96 B.C.; diademed of Ptolemy right with ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, of right, hair in formal curls down neck, below chin; $32.00 (€28.48)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, III and Ptolemy IX II (Lathyros), 116 - c. 110 B.C.
After Ptolemy died in 116 B.C., III ruled with her mother II and son Ptolemy IX. In 110 B.C., she replaced Ptolemy IX as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. Ptolemy IX regained the throne in 109 but was again replaced in 107 B.C. In 101 B.C., Ptolemy X had his mother III murdered and then ruled alone or with his niece and wife, Berenice III.GP62411. Bronze AE 14, cf. 1845; 378; 685, 392, -, F, 1.923 g, maximum 13.6 mm, 0o, Kyrene mint, 116 - c. 110 B.C.; horned of Zeus-Ammon right, wearing diadem; ΠTOΛE BAΣIΛE ΣΩTH (or similar), headdress of ; $25.00 (€22.25)
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