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Lycia, on the southern coast of Anatolia, was first recorded in the Late Bronze Age records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire. In 546 B.C. when Lycia was involuntary incorporated into the Persian Empire, the local population was decimated, and the area received an influx of Persians. Lycia fought for Persia in the Persian Wars. Intermittently free after the Greeks defeated the Achaemenid Empire, it briefly joined the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, and went under Macedonian hegemony at the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great. Lycia was totally Hellenized under the Macedonians. The Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. On defeating Antiochus III in 188 the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, taking it back in 168 B.C. The Romans allowed home rule under the Lycian League, a federation with republican principles, which later influenced the framers of the United States Constitution. In 43 A.D. Claudius dissolved the league and made Lycia a Roman province. It was an eparchy of Byzantine Empire. A substantial Christian Greek community lived in Lycia until the 1920s when they were forced to migrate to Greece following the Greco-Turkish War.
Phaselis, Lycia, c. 530 - 520 B.C.
Phaselis was founded in 690 BC by settlers from the island of Rhodes. In the same year, the great Rhodian seafarers also founded Gela, on the island of Sicily, thus extending their influence across the Greek world. The colony of Phaselis was the one purely Greek city in Lycia and differed in language, culture, and alphabet from the adjacent cities of the region. It should be noted that the coinage of Phaselis is among the earliest, if not the earliest, of all silver coinage struck in Asia Minor. Struck circa 530 B.C., this coin is roughly contemporary with the silver issues of King Kroisos of Lydia and represents the dawn of this medium of exchange in Asia Minor. GS87793. Silver stater, Heipp-Tamer Series 3, Em. 1a, 25-27 (V-/R25 [unlisted obv. die]); Asyut 734; SNGvA 4390; Weber III 7291; SNG Cop -; SNG Delepierre -; BMC Lycia -, VF, tight flan cutting off nose of boar, bumps and marks, test cut, weight 10.967 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, Phaselis (near Tekirova, Turkey) mint, c. 530 - 520 B.C.; obverse Prow of galley right in the form of an abstract boar's head, with foreleg and large apotropaic eye, three round shields on gunwale; reverseincuse square punch, random wear pattern within; $750.00 (€637.50)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Patara, Lycia
From the birthplace of Santa Clause. Patara, sometimes renamed Arsinoe, was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of Gelemis, in Antalya Province. Patara was said to have been founded by Patarus, a son of Apollo and was renowned for its temple and oracle of Apollo, second only to that of Delphi. Apollo is sometimes mentioned with the surname Patareus. Patara is the birthplace of St. Nicholas (b. c. 15 March 270 A.D.), who lived most of his life in the nearby town of Myra (Demre). RP87599. Bronze AE 29, SNGvA 4385; SNG Cop 117 118; BMC Lycia p. 77, 14; Von Aulock Lykien 197 , Choice F, nice green patina, well centered on a tight flan, weight 16.416 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Patara (near Gelemis, Turkey) mint, 29 Jul 238 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI M ANT ΓOP∆IANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverse ΠATAPEWN, Apollo standing slightly left, head left, laurel branch in extended right hand, bow in left hand at side; before him, on left, eagle standing left on omphalos with it head turned back right; behind, on right, serpent-entwined tripod lebes; rare; $550.00 (€467.50)
Anatolia (Lycia?), 5th Century B.C.
Although unlisted in the major references, a similar hemidrachmtype was first published by 1897. Six obols of this type, including this coin, are listed on Coin Archives having been offered at auction in the last two decades.
The chimera was, according to Greek mythology, a monstrous fire-breathing creature of Lycia, composed of the parts of three animals - a lion, a snake, and a goat or stag. Usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat arising from its back, and a tail that ending with a snake's head, the Chimera was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra. The term chimera has come to describe any mythical or fictional animal with parts taken from various animals, or to describe anything perceived as wildly imaginative or implausible.GS87477. Silver obol, 6 specimens known from auctions, otherwise unpublished; cf. Boston MFA 2325 (hemidrachm), Greenwell 1897, p. 281, 2 (= Boston MFA 2325), VF, well centered, toned, lightly etched surfaces, bumps and scratches, die wear, weight 0.662 g, maximum diameter 7.8 mm, die axis 270o, uncertain (Lycian?) mint, 5th century B.C.; obversechimera standing (right?) with heads of a lion (in center with looking left), stag, and serpent, joined on one quadruped body at the center and radiating outward; reversegorgoneion (facing head of Medusa), snaky locks, tongue protruding, within incuse square; ex Numismatic Naumann, auction 62 (4 Feb 2018), lot 127; extremely rare; $280.00 (€238.00)
Lycia, Uncertain Dynast, c. 400 - 350 B.C.
Although we cannot find a match with this inscription, Historia Numorum lists lion scalp and helmeted head of Athena types struck by several dynasts in the first half of the 4th century B.C.GA87325. Silver obol, Apparently unpublished, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG Tüb -, Vismara -, Podalia Hoard -, BMC Lycia -, F/VF, significant edge chip, weight 0.579 g, maximum diameter 10.9 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; obverselion scalp facing, from above; reversehead of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, Lycian letters (EK?) above, dot border, all within a round incuse; extremely rare; $100.00 (€85.00)
Lycian League, Myra, Masicytus, Lycia, c. 35 - 27 B.C.
Cragus and Masicytus were the two principal districts of Lycia, named for the Cragus and Masicytus mountain ranges. Xanthus, Patara, and Tlos were towns in Cragus. Myra, the primary town in Masicytus, was on the river Myros, 5.4 kilometers from the sea. Saint Paul visited the port on his way to Italy. The remains of the ancient city are some of the most beautiful ruins in Lycia and include a large theater.GB86566. Bronze half unit, Troxell 174 (4 spec.); Waddington 3089; BMC Lycia p. 70, 5 corr. (MY); RPC I 3315; Müseler -; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, F, green patina, scratches, obverse off center, weight 2.327 g, maximum diameter 13.8 mm, die axis 0o, Myra (Demre, Turkey) mint, c. 35 - 27 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse bow and quiver in saltire (crossed), ΛYKI (Lycia) above, M-A (Masicytus) across field, all within an incuse square; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; very rare; $70.00 (€59.50)
Phaselis, Lycia, c. 260 - 220 B.C.
Phaselis was founded in 690 B.C. by settlers from Rhodes. Phaselis was the one purely Greek city in Lycia, differing in language, culture, and alphabet from the adjacent cities of the region. Phaselis was under Ptolemaic rule from 209 to 197 B.C. Antiochus III formally took possession of the Egyptian territories in Anatolia through the Peace of Lysimachia in 195. Despite the vicissitudes of the area, Phaselis seems to have retained significant autonomy and struck Alexander type tetradrachms from 218 - 185 B.C. The series ended shortly after conclusion of the Apamea treaty, when Phaselis was placed under Rhodes. In 160 B.C. Phaselis was absorbed into the Lycian confederacy under Roman rule. GB88131. Brass AE 10, cf. SNG Cop 123 (Athena not described, perhaps present but mostly off flan on plate), Heipp-Tamer B25 ff. var. (no Athena), BMC Lycia -, SNGvA -, VF/aF, attractive toning, some corrosion, weight 1.124 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 270o, Phaselis (near Tekirova, Turkey) mint, c. 260 - 220 B.C.; obverse prow of war galley right, Athena onboard standing right, brandishing spear, shield on left arm, fish(?) below galley; reverse stern of galley left, with aphlaston, ΦAΣ in center; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; extremely rare; $50.00 (€42.50)
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