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Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Alexandria Troas, Troas
The representation of the decurions of Alexandria depicted on the reverse of this type is unique within the Roman provincial series. The decurions were members of municipal senates responsible for procuring funds for new public works, festivities and games, as well as for welfare networks. Their fiscal responsibilities also extended to the collecting of imperial taxes, for which they were expected to cover any shortfalls.RP87204. Bronze AE 22, RPC IX 432 (12 spec.); Bellinger A409; SNG Çanakkale 376; BMC Troas p.27, 145; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, aVF, dark green patina, reverse slightly off center, tiny encrustations, some legend weak, edge cracks, weight 4.586 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverseIMP CVIBI TRIBO GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverse The curia decurionum of Alexandria in session: nine men wearing togas seated in a semicircle, two outer men seated on curule chairs, two in center holding short staffs, AVG above, two steps below, ALEXAND on upper step, decorative pattern on lower step, TROADA in exergue; ex Roma Numismatics, e-sale 40 (28 Oct 2017), lot 429; very rare; $1450.00 (€1232.50)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Patara, Lycia
From the birthplace of Santa Clause. Patara, sometimes renamed Arsinoe, was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of Gelemis, in Antalya Province. Patara was said to have been founded by Patarus, a son of Apollo and was renowned for its temple and oracle of Apollo, second only to that of Delphi. Apollo is sometimes mentioned with the surname Patareus. Patara is the birthplace of St. Nicholas (b. c. 15 March 270 A.D.), who lived most of his life in the nearby town of Myra (Demre).RP87599. Bronze AE 29, SNGvA 4385; SNG Cop 117 118; BMC Lycia p. 77, 14; Von Aulock Lykien 197 , Choice F, nice green patina, well centered on a tight flan, weight 16.416 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Patara (near Gelemis, Turkey) mint, 29 Jul 238 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI M ANT ΓOP∆IANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverse ΠATAPEWN, Apollo standing slightly left, head left, laurel branch in extended right hand, bow in left hand at side; before him, on left, eagle standing left on omphalos with it head turned back right; behind, on right, serpent-entwined tripod lebes; rare; $550.00 (€467.50)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
In 263 A.D., King Odenathus of Palmyra declared himself ruler of the areawest of the River Euphrates and was given the title Dux Orientalis by Emperor Gallienus.RB86184. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC V J209, Cohen V 132, Hunter IV J24 corr. (described with aegis), SRCV III 10467, aVF, tight flan, dark green patina with light earthen deposits, some corrosion, a few blue-green spots, tiny edge cracks, weight 16.198 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverseIMP CP LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverseCONCORDIA EXERCIT (harmony with the army), Concord standing left holding patera and double cornucopia, S C (senatus consulto) at sides low across field; the lighter blue-green spots are hard, not powdery, and do NOT appear to be active corrosion; $240.00 (€204.00)
Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
During Philip's reign the 1000th anniversary of Rome (248 A.D.) was celebrated, and magnificent games were held. This coin was issued as part of that celebration and the reverse undoubted depicts one of the animal types displayed and hunted in the Colosseum during the games.RB87835. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IV 160a; Cohen V 183, Hunter III 107, SRCV III 9012, VF, nice portrait, well centered, some bumps and scratches, a little rough and porous, edge cracks, traces of shellac(?), weight 16.917 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right, from behind; reverseSAECVLARES AVGG (Secular games [provided by] the Emperors), stag standing right, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; $200.00 (€170.00)
Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, Syria
In 248, overwhelmed by the number of invasions and usurpers, Philip offered to resign. The Senate decided to support the Emperor, with Gaius Messius Quintus Decius most vocal of all the senators. Philip was so impressed that he dispatched Decius with a special command of the Pannonian and Moesian provinces. His loyal supporter, Decius, was, however, proclaimed Emperor by the Danubian armies in the spring of 249 and defeated and killed Philip in September. RP87838. Billontetradrachm, McAlee 1032(b) (ex. rare), Prieur 402A, SNG Cop -, BMC Galatia -, VF, well centered, uneven toning, earthen deposits,, weight 10.929 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 247 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, radiate and cuirassedbust left, without aegis, seen from the front; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠATO Γ (holder of Tribunitian power, consul for the 3rd time), eagle standing right, head right, wings open, neither wing behind leg, wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA over S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; extremely rare; $180.00 (€153.00)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Trapezus, Pontos
Trabzon (Greek: Trebizond, Latin: Trapezus) was important for access to roads over the Zigana Pass to Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley. Under Vespasian, new roads were constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia. Hadrian visited the city in the 129 and commissioned improvements to the harbor. Trapezus suffered for supporting Pescennius Niger; after he lost to Septimius Severus in a civil war. In 257 the city was pillaged by the Goths, despite two bands of walls and a guard "10,000 above its usual garrison." Recovery was slow, but an inscription dating to the reign of Diocletian mentions the restoration. The martyrdom of Eugenius, the patron saint of the city, was during the reign of Diocletian. Eugenius had destroyed the statue of Mithras which overlooked the city from Mount Minthrion. RP88159. Bronze tetrassarion, Lindgren-Kovacs 54 (same dies); SNGvA 140 (same obv. die); Rec Gén p. 114, 48 & pl. 16, 7; SNG Cop -; BMC Pontus -, gVF, green patina, broad flan, reverse off center, some porosity, edge split, weight 13.254 g, maximum diameter 30.6 mm, die axis 180o, Trapezus (Trabzon, Turkey) mint, 243 - 244 A.D.; obverse AV K M AN ΓOP∆IANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverse TPAΠEZOVNTIΩN (Z reversed, Ω appearing reversed S), turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right, ET - Π/P (year 180) divided across field; very rare; $180.00 (€153.00)
Saloninus, Summer 260 A.D.
Spes was the Roman personification of Hope. In art Spes is normally depicted carrying flowers or a cornucopia, but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right hand, while the left is raising a fold of her dress. She was also named "ultima dea" - for Hope is the last resort of men. On this coin, the Caesar, Saloninus, the designated successor of the emperor, is identified as the hope for the future of the Roman people. RL88067. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1707e(1) (Samosata), RIC V-1 36 (Antioch), RSC IV 95a (Antioch), Hunter IV 12, Cunetio 865 (3 spec.), SRCV III 10775, nice VF, attractive dark tone, porosity, weight 3.111 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Syrian mint, as caesar, Jan - summer 260 A.D.; obverse SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseSPES PVBLICA (the hope of the public), Saloninus (on left) standing right, wearing military garb, holding spear, confrontingSpes standing left, raising skirt with left hand, presenting flower to prince with right hand, wreath above; $175.00 (€148.75)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.RA86673. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1684m (Samosata), RSC IV 792b (Antioch), Hunter IV J68 (uncertain Eastern), RIC V-1 J447 (Asia), SRCV III 10312 (uncertain Syrian), EF, white metal, mint luster, areas of light porosity, weight 3.925 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverseIMP CP LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reversePIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right hand on parazonium on left side; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $140.00 (€119.00)
Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D.
Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others. RB88150. Orichalcumsestertius, Göbl MIR 230d(2), RIC V 47 (S), Cohen V 86, Hunter IV J17, Banti 16, SRCV III 10680, F, squared flan, legend mostly unstruck or off flan, weight 18.499 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 2nd - 4th emission of Gallienus, 255 - 257 A.D.; obverseCORNELIA SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head; reversePIETAS AVGG, Pietas seated left, holding scepter; two children (Valerian II and Saloninus?) at her feet left, third child (Egnatius?) below throne, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $140.00 (€119.00)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
In 243, Timesitheus, Gordian's father-in-law and praetorian prefect became ill and died under suspicious circumstances. Gordian III appointed Philip the Arab as his new praetorian prefect.RB76166. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IV 303a, Hunter III 117, Cohen V 262, SRCV III 8732, Choice VF, attractive green patina with red earthen fill, nice portrait, well centered, light marks, small edge cracks, weight 17.522 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 4th issue, 242 - 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseP M TR P V COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, laurel-branch in right hand, left forearm resting on lyre on back of his seat, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; $125.00 (€106.25)
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