the Younger, , 94 - 95 A.D., Smyrna,
In 94 A.D., because he had no heir, adopted his two young great-nephews. He renamed them and . The next year he executed the boys' father, his cousin, Flavius Clemens, and exiled the boys' mother, his niece, . They were charged with Atheism, a charge sometimes applied to condemn converts to Judaism or Christianity. The boys then disappeared from history and their fate is unknown.
Smyrna was the only city to strike coins in the name of the Younger. No coins were struck for his brother.
Some scholars connect with a Roman Matron in the Talmud (Avodah Zarah 10b) and the Deuteronomy Rabbah 2.25. When the emperor had decreed that in 30 days, the Senate would confirm an edict to kill all Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire, the Roman matron convinced her husband to stand up for the Jews. If that identification is correct, her husband Flavius Clemens converted to Judaism, after having contact with the great sage Rabbi Akiva. is a saint in both the Greek Orthodox and the Roman Catholic .SH83453. Bronze AE 16, p. 244, 3, pl. 31 (V1/R1); 1028; 1360; 2208; p. 276, 320, gF/F, 2.790 g, maximum 16.3 mm, 0o, Smyrna mint, as , 94 - 95 A.D.; OYOCΠACIANOC NEΩTEPOC, right; ZMYPNAIΩN, standing right, in extended right hand, frond over left shoulder in left hand; ex Numismatik, auction 7, lot 200; ; $1300.00 (€1157.00)
This may commemorate a on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of .RB68879. Copper as, , 1, 335; 617; 632; 119 var. ( , low across ); -, F, , nice green , small areas of corrosion on obv, 12.620 g, maximum 27.6 mm, 180o, mint, 71 A.D.; AVG , right; (the naval ), standing right on a prow, in right hand, frond over should in left, S C ( ) in ; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $160.00 (€142.40)
was the Roman goddess of the hearth ( ) and, derived from that, was important for the security of the state (homeland). may have been especially devoted to because he was brought up by his grandmother in that he loved and appreciated. Suetonius wrote, "He was brought up under the care of his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estates at Cosa. Therefore, even after he became emperor he used constantly to visit the of his infancy, where the manor house was kept in its original condition, since he did not wish to miss anything which he was wont to see there; and he was so devoted to his grandmother's memory that on religious and festival days he always drank from a little silver cup that had belonged to her." With his coinage dedicated to , expressed his respect for and hearth, and his dedication to security of the state.SL85101. Silver , , 1, 50; 574; 71; 55; 2316, VF35 (5163464), mint, 72 A.D.; , laureate right; standing left, in right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, VES-TA across ; certified (slabbed) by ; $160.00 (€142.40)
In the Roman Republic, and Empire, the curule chair ( , supposedly from , "chariot") was the seat upon which magistrates holding imperium were entitled to sit. This includes dictators, magistri equitum, consuls, praetors, censors, curule aediles, and the promagistrates, temporary or de facto holders of such offices. Additionally, the Flamen of ( ) was also allowed to sit on a curule seat, though this position did not hold imperium. Livy writes that the three maiores or high priests of the Archaic Triad of major gods were each granted the of the curule chair.SH70290. Silver , , 1, 6 (R); 541a; p. 8, 46; -; -; -, F, , , , 3.296 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 180o, mint, 1st issue, 21 Dec 69 - early 70 A.D.; IMP AVG, laureate right; TITVS ET CAESARES IV, and seated left, side by side on curule chairs, each holding a laurel branch in extended right hand; ; $155.00 (€137.95)
was the Roman personification of Hope. In art is normally depicted carrying flowers or a , but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right hand, and raising a fold of her dress with her left hand. She was also named "ultima dea" - for Hope is the last resort of men.RB84861. Copper as, , 1, 894; 725, 757, 457, C3852, -, VF, rough and smoothed, 11.521 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 180o, mint, 76 A.D.; IMP AVG , laureate right; standing left, flower in right hand, raising skirt with left hand, ( ) flanking at sides; $150.00 (€133.50)
In 76 A.D., Governor of Sextus Julius Frontinus subdued the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, established a fortress at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for II Augusta and made a network of smaller forts for his auxiliary forces.SH70285. Silver , , 1, 847; 180; 156; 121; 57; 2287, aVF, portrait, , , tiny edge cracks, 3.500 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 135o, mint, 76 A.D.; IMP AVG, laureate right; , standing facing, left, on low garlanded ; $125.00 (€111.25)
On 14 April 70 A.D. surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.RS70291. Silver , , 1, 21; 94a; 17; 10; 2284, VF, excellent portrait, , on a , small edge cracks, 3.231 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 135o, mint, 70 A.D.; IMP AVG, laureate right; , standing left, in right hand, transverse in left; $100.00 (€89.00)
In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a on the Arch of . According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the in the sacking of in 455, and taken to their capital, . According to , the General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.RS85128. Silver , , 1, 772; 366; 161; 139; 51; 2301, F, centered on a , a little rough, struck with a worn die, edge crack, 3.220 g, maximum 18.8 mm, 225o, mint, 75 A.D.; IMP AVG (counterclockwise), laureate right; (high priest, tribune of the people, consul for the 6th time), Pax seated left, extending olive branch in right hand, left hand at side; $100.00 (€89.00)
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Caesarea,
Kayseri, Turkey was originally named Mazaca. It was renamed Eusebia by Ariarathes V Eusebes, of , 163 - 130 B.C. The last of , Archelaus, renamed it "Caesarea in Cappadocia" to upon his death in 14 A.D. Muslim Arabs slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, which became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control, c. 1080 A.D.RP85311. Silver , 1636 (6 spec.); 96; Conspectus p. 94, 7; -; -; -, aF, marks and scratches, 2.536 g, maximum 18.3 mm, 180o, , Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, c. 73 - 74 A.D.; AYOKPA OVECΠACIANOC , laureate right; EKTOY (year 6), Mount surmounted by a statue of figure standing facing, , globe in right hand, long vertical in left hand; very ; $95.00 (€84.55)
This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.RS70310. Silver , , 1, 29; 94h; 26; 17; 14; 2285, F, , 3.226 g, maximum 17.9 mm, 180o, mint, 70 A.D.; IMP AVG, laureate right; , Pax seated left on chair without back, olive branch in right hand, in left hand; $90.00 (€80.10)
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