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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Roman Mints ▸ LondiniumView Options:  |  |  |   

Londinium (London, England)

Londinium was established on the site of the City of London around 43 A.D. It was sacked in 60 A.D. by the Iceni led by queen Boudica, but quickly rebuilt. At the end of the 1st century, Londinium was a cosmopolitan community of merchants from across the Empire and the capital of Roman Britain. In 286, the usurper Carausius declared himself the Emperor of Britain. In 296, Rome invaded and reclaimed Britain from his successor Allectus. Twice British legions rebelled and elected their own emperors, Magnus Maximus in 382 and Constantine III, in 407. Both crossed the channel with their legions and were defeated, leaving Britain largely unprotected. As the Empire declined, Britain became increasingly isolated. In 410, the Romano-British authorities appealed to Honorius for help. He replied that the Britons would have to look after their own defenses, meaning Roman occupation of Britain had ended. Britain was increasingly vulnerable to attack by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisii. By the middle 5th century only a small number of wealthy families maintained a Roman lifestyle. At the end of the 5th century the city was largely an uninhabited ruin. Mint dates of operation: 287 - 325 and 383 - 388. Mintmarks: AVG, AVGOB, AVGPS, L, LD, LG, LI, LN, LON, LVG, LVGD, LVGPS, ML, MLL, MLN, MSL, PLN, PLON. Londinium was renamed Augusta about 325 A.D. Coins minted under Magnus Maximus, 383 - 387, use AVG mintmarks.Londinium


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA73500. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 167; RIC V, part 2, 141 (R); SRCV IV 13665; Cohen VII 241; Hunter IV 50 var. (scepter transverse), VF, attractive green patina with earthen highlighting, light marks, weight 2.846 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 45o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left, S - P flanking across field, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $195.00 (165.75)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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References list numerous Carausius varieties with Pax reverse legends but depicting Salus and also types with Salus reverse legends but depicting Pax. The references provided for comparison list a PAX AVG, with Salus type, without controls or a mintmark; David Sear attributes to London, 286 - 287 A.D. References do not list our variety but other types with F - O across the field and ML in the exergue are attributed to London, c. 289 - 290 A.D. This is the only example of this variant known to Forum.
RA73904. Billon antoninianus, Apparently unpublished; cf. RIC V, part 2, 930 ff. (no mintmarks); Webb Carausius 1031 ff. (same); SRCV IV 13661 (same, London, 286 - 287), aVF, nice green patina, overstruck or double-struck, tight flan cutting off parts of legends and mintmark, weight 2.615 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 315o, Londinium(?) or unofficial(?) mint, 289 - 290 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVS[IVS P AVG] (or similar), radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG[GG?], Salus standing half left, head left, feeding snake rising from altar at left from patera in her right hand, vertical scepter in left hand, [F?] - O flanking across the field, M[L?] in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; possibly unique!; $180.00 (153.00)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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The system of mintmarks, widely used by all mints in the late Roman Empire, was introduced under the usurper Carausius, probably by his finance minister and successor, Allectus. Carausius coins without mintmarks are his earliest coins, probably struck at Londinium and Camulodunum before mid-287. Coins without mintmarks and with crude style or blundered legends are probably unofficial.
RA73276. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 1010; RIC V, ii, 905 var. (no cuirass); Cohen VII 209 var. (same); SRCV IV 13649 var. (transverse scepter); Hunter IV 72 var. (same), VF, attractive green patina, well centered, porous, light corrosion, weight 5.053 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 90o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. mid 286 - mid 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing left, olive branch in extended right hand, staff vertical behind in left hand, no mintmarks or controls; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $135.00 (114.75)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA73283. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 167; RIC V, part 2, 141 (R); SRCV IV 13665; Cohen VII 241; Hunter IV 50 var. (scepter transverse), gVF/VF, green patina, traces of silvering, nice portrait, some legend unstruck, black deposits, light scratches and marks, weight 5.021 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 180o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left, S - P flanking across field, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $135.00 (114.75)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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In The Reign and Coinage of Carausius, Percy Webb wrote that Providentia types are very common, but those reading PROVIDEN are rare.
RA73472. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 175 (draped, no cuirass) or 176 (also cuirassed), RIC V 149 (S), SRCV IV 13694, Askew 182, Hunter IV -, VF, green patina, well centered on a tight flan, areas weakly struck, bumps and marks, weight 3.155 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right; reverse PROVIDENT AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing left, globe in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, B - E across fields, MLXXI in exergue; scarce; $135.00 (114.75)


Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

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In a religious context, votum, plural vota, is a vow or promise made to a deity. The word comes from the past participle of voveo, vovere; as the result of the verbal action "vow, promise", it may refer also to the fulfillment of this vow, that is, the thing promised. The votum is thus an aspect of the contractual nature of Roman religion, a bargaining expressed by do ut des, "I give that you might give."
RL76939. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII London 236, Cohen VII 8, SRCV V 17149 var. (helmeted bust), Hunter V -, Nice gVF, weight 3.109 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, Londinium (London, England) mint, as caesar, 321 - 322 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust left; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), globe on altar inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, three stars above, PLON in exergue; $125.00 (106.25)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA77916. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 128; RIC V, part 2, 101; Hunter IV 36; SRCV IV 13639A; Cohen VII 193;, F, well centered, corrosion, encrustation, weight 3.719 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 289 - 290 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, F - O flanking at sides, ML in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren, ex Alex G. Malloy sale XLV (19 Mar 1997), lot 650, ex K.F. Jacob Collection; scarce; $125.00 (106.25)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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This variety is apparently unpublished but, based on the number of examples online, it is fairly common.
RA73242. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 149; RIC V, part 2, 118; Hunter IV 54, Askew 163, Cohen VII 215; SRCV IV 13640, VF, excellent centering, nice green patina, light marks, small earthen deposits, weight 3.968 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, Londinium (London, England) mint, 292 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, S - P flanking at sides, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $120.00 (102.00)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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This variety is apparently unpublished but, based on the number of examples online, it is fairly common.
RA73233. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 149 var.; RIC V, part 2, 118 var.; SRCV IV 13640 var.; Hunter IV 54 var. (all transverse scepter), F, green patina, full flan, traces of silvering, bumps and marks, reverse weakly struck, weight 3.921 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 180o, Londinium (London, England) mint, 292 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, S - P flanking at sides, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $110.00 (93.50)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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In The British Usurpers Carausius & Allectus, P.J. Casey writes, "It should be observed the employment of mintmarks and control symbols in a rational and systematic manner is an innovation of the coinage of Carausius which was subsequently adopted throughout the Roman coinage. Why it was felt necessary to introduce such a radical system of record is not known: if, as will be argued, Allectus was the finance minister of the Carausian administration, it is to him that this innovation should be credited."
RA73286. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 139; RIC V, part 2, 98; Cohen VII 194; Hunter IV 48; SRCV IV 13639 var. (IMP CAR..), aVF, well centered, area of corrosion and pitting, some legend unstruck, earthen deposits, weight 4.210 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 291 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left, B - E flanking across the field, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $110.00 (93.50)




  



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