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Hadrian, one of the "Five Good Emperors," abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and established a policy of defense and consolidation during which Hadrian's Wall in Britain was constructed. He traveled to nearly every province of the Empire, more than any other emperor, often ordering grandiose building programs to improve infrastructure and the quality of life in those regions. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He spent much of his time with the military; usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. He suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina.
Roman Egypt, Nov 130 - c. 138 A.D.
Both the obverse and reverse types on this tessera are published but the combination does not appear to be published. Nor did we find another example online. According to Milne, lead tesserae served as local small change in Egypt during the first to the third century A.D.
Euthenia is the Greek personification of abundance or plenty. To the Romans she was Abundantia. Her attributes are grain and the cornucopia. On Roman coins of Alexandria she often appears to be the spouse of the Nile; yet, in the Egyptian pantheon Euthenia did not exist and the Nile had no consort.RX90574. Lead tessera, Unpublished; cf. Dattari 6444 and Geissen 3584 (for obversetype) and Dattari 6493 and 3575 (for reversetype), VF , weight 5.107 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 270o, Alexandria(?) mint, Nov 130 - c. 138 A.D. (possibly later); obverseAntinous on horseback right, wearing hem hem crown, caduceus in right hand; reverseNilus reclining left on crocodile right below, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, reeds in his right hand, cornucopia in left; before him at his feet stands Euthenia (prosperity) wearing chiton and peplos, offering wreath held in right hand; extremely rare; $300.00 (€267.00)
Fortuna Redux, one of the many aspects of Fortuna, was in charge of bringing people home safely, primarily from wars - redux means "coming back" or "returning." She may be one of the later aspects of Fortuna, as the earliest mention of her is on an altar dedicated by the Senate in 19 B.C. for the safe return of Emperor Augustus. This type refers to Hadrian's return to Rome from his second tour of the provinces in about 132 A.D. It may have been struck before his return to appeal for her protection or after to thank her.RS84673. Silver denarius, RSC II 789e corr. (789d listed twice in error), BMCRE III 655 var. (draped), RIC II 248 var. (Fortuna leans on rudder), SRCV II 3495 var. (same), gVF, excellent portrait, tight flan, reverse slightly off center, reverse die wear, porous, edge cracks, weight 2.976 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 134 - 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right; reverseFORTVNAE REDVCI, Hadrian on left, standing right, togate, scroll in left hand, clasping right hands with Fortuna, goddess standing left, cornucopia in her left hand; rare variety; $270.00 (€240.30)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Koinon of Bithynia
The mint location for the Koinon of Bithynia is uncertain but it was probably Nicomedia. Nicomedia was the Roman metropolis of Bithynia. Diocletian made it the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324. Constantine resided mainly in Nicomedia as his interim capital for the next six years, until in 330 when he declared the nearby Byzantium (renamed Constantinople) the new capital. Constantine died in his royal villa in the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Due to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.RP84486. Bronze AE 21, RPC Online III 1017 (3 spec.); Rec Gen I.2 p. 241, 38; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -; 38; BMC Pontus -, gF, brown patina, some roughness, smoothing on reverse, reverse die breaks, cracks, weight 25.115 g, maximum diameter 33.2 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain (Nicomedia?) mint, 2nd issue; obverse AYT KAIC TPAI A∆PIANOC CEB, laureate head right; reverse octastyle temple (Temple of Rome and Augustus at Nicomedia?), Corinthian columns, on podium of two steps, pellet between middle columns, pediment ornamented with a small figure holding a scepter and sacrificing on an altar, KOI-NON in divided line flanking across center, BEIOYNIANC over prow right in exergue; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, ex Classical Numismatic Group e-auction 349 (22 Apr 2015), lot 263; better than the RPC plate coin; very rare; $240.00 (€213.60)
Ceres' known mythology is indistinguishable from Demeter's. Her virgin daughter Proserpina (Persephone) was abducted by Hades to be his wife in the underworld. Ceres searched for her endlessly lighting her way through the earth with torches. While Ceres (Demeter) searched, she was preoccupied with her loss and her grief. The seasons halted; living things ceased their growth, then began to die. Some say that in her anger she laid a curse on the world that caused plants to wither and die, and the land to become desolate. Faced with the extinction of all life on earth, Zeus sent his messenger Hermes to the underworld to bring Proserpina back. However, because she had eaten while in the underworld, Hades had a claim on her. Therefore, it was decreed that she would spend four months each year in the underworld. During these months Ceres grieves for her daughter's absence, withdrawing her gifts from the world, creating winter. Proserpina's return brings the spring.SH77274. Silver denarius, RSC II 69a (R); Strack II 859; BMCRE II p. 356, - (*ref. Moushmov pl. 2, 13); RIC IIHadrian 409 var. (modius at feet); Hunter II -; SRCV II -, F, dark toning, scratches, edge cracks, weight 3.172 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 128 A.D.; obverseSABINAAVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, diademed and draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in a plaited coil on crown of head; reverseCeres seated left on basket, two stalks of grain and poppy in right hand, lit torch in left hand, S•C in exergue; extremely rare; $200.00 (€178.00)
Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
RPC notes that a worn specimen of this type "has recently turned up in a small hoard of bronzes from Syria, which otherwise had nothing later than AD 121/2." Prior to that date, only Augustus and Tiberius ruled long enough to issue coins dated year 21 and RPC suggests attribution to Augustus. We disagree. Year 21 of Augustus was seven years before his first dated coins. Tiberius ruled long enough, but the Alexandria mint stopped striking bronze in his year six. Trajan died on 8 or 9 August of his 20th year. In Alexandria, Trajan's 21st year would have begun on 29 August 117. We believe this type was struck after 29 August 117, in the few days before the mint was informed of his death. The short period explains the great rarity. After the mint was informed of Hadrian's accession, they changed the reversetype to the Apis bull right and the date to L B, year 2 of Hadrian. RX85457. Bronze dichalkon, RPC I 5111 (5 spec.), Dattari 50, BMC Alexandria 2629, Kampmann A.5, Emmett 4260 (R5 for year 20, a misreading of year 21), Geissen -, F, irregular underweight flan, date weak, weight 0.810 g, maximum diameter 11.8 mm, die axis 315o, Alexandria mint, posthumous, 29 Aug - early Sep 117 A.D.; obverseibis right; reversecrocodile right, L KA (year 21); very rare; $180.00 (€160.20)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Struck at Rome for Use in Syria
The kithara (cithara) was an ancient stringed musical instrument resembling the lyre. The lyre was a simpler folk-instrument with two strings and tortoise shell body. The kithara had seven strings and a flat back. A symbol of Apollo, credited with inventing it, the Kithara's origins were likely Asiatic. The kithara was primarily used by professional musicians, called kitharodes. In modern Greek, the word kithara has come to mean "guitar."RY76699. Orichalcum as, McAlee 546, RIC II 684 (S), BMCRE III 1354, Cohen II 442, Hunter II -, VF, attractive dark patina with red earthen highlighting, nice style, tight flan, weight 8.031 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 119 - 10 Jul 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverseCOS III, kithara (lyre), S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across the field; $145.00 (€129.05)
Roman Egypt, Nov 130 - c. 138 A.D.
Both the obverse and reverse types on this tessera are published but the combination does not appear to be published. Nor did we find another example online. According to Milne, lead tesserae served as local small change in Egypt during the first to the third century A.D.RX74430. Lead tessera, Unpublished; cf. Dattari 6444 and Geissen 3584 (for obversetype), F, weight 3.300 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria(?) mint, Nov 130 - c. 138 A.D. (possibly later); obverseAntinous on horseback right, wearing hem hem crown, caduceus in right hand; reversebust of Serapis(?) right, kalathos (?, on head), cornucopia on shoulder behind, snake entwined staff before; extremely rare; $140.00 (€124.60)
References list this type as a quadrans but examples without patina appear to be orichalcum (brass) vice copper. The yellow metal indicates the type is a semis. This coin has a near black patina, which is more common on brass than on bronze or copper, and the few spots of bare metal do look to be brass.RB77189. Orichalcumsemis, RIC II 625, BMCRE III 1279, Strack II 579, Cohen 1167 (5 fr.), SRCV II 3704 (all list as quadrans), gVF, nice dark patina, weight 2.989 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, Rome mint, 120 - 123 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, eagle standing half right, head turned left, wings open but not spread; reverseP M TR PCOS III, horizontal thunderbolt, S C below; rare; $140.00 (€124.60)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia
Kayseri, Turkey was originally named Mazaca. It was renamed Eusebia by Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia, 163 - 130 B.C. The last king of Cappadocia, King Archelaus, renamed it "Caesarea in Cappadocia" to honorCaesarAugustus upon his death in 14 A.D. Muslim Arabs slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, which became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control, c. 1080 A.D.RP84962. Silver hemidrachm, Metcalf Cappadocia 85; Sydenham Caesarea 257; BMC Galatia p. 62, 143; SNG Cop 223; SNGvA -, gVF, light marks, slight porosity, weight 1.439 g, maximum diameter 14.2 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 120 - 121 A.D.; obverse AYTO KAIC TPAI A∆PIANOC CEBACT, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse club, ET - ∆ (year 4) divided across field; $130.00 (€115.70)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
The ancients did not agree on the attributes of Serapis. A passage in Tacitus affirms that many recognized in this god, Aesculapius, imputing healing to his intervention; some thought him identical with Osiris, the oldest deity of the Egyptians; others regarded him as Jupiter, possessing universal power; but by most he was believed to be the same as Pluto, the "gloomy" Dis Pater of the infernal regions. On this coin, Pluto's influence is evident with the fearsome Kerberos at Serapis' feet.RX76581. Billontetradrachm, Kampmann 32.571, Geissen 1094, Dattari 1479, Milne 1399, Emmett 892, BMC Alexandria 623, SRCV II 6739 var. (date), aF, well centered, grainy and porous, weight 10.343 g, maximum diameter 13.74 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 133 - 28 Aug 134 A.D.; obverse AYT KAIC TPAIAN A∆PIANOC CEB, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverseSerapis seated left, reaching with right to Cerberus at feet left, long scepter vertical in right, LI - H (regnal year 18) across fields; $90.00 (€80.10)
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