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Kasolaba, Caria, c. 410 - 390 B.C.
One of the letters on most example of this type or is only known in the Karian script but determining the mint city within Karia is less certain. The most current interpretation of the inscriptions and some recorded provenances support Kasolaba, a city which is mentioned in the Athenian Tribute Lists but whose precise location is uncertain. GA87963. Silver hemiobol, Konuk Kasolaba 7, SNG Kayhan 996, SNG Keckman 873, SNG Tübingen 3316, Klein 497, Troxell 9A, VF, well centered, dark toning, compact slightly ragged flan, weight 0.283 g, maximum diameter 6.8 mm, die axis 180o, Kasolaba mint, c. 410 - 390 B.C.; obverse head of ram right; reverse young male head right, Carian ethnic abbreviation: - A divided low across field, within incuse square; $105.00 (€92.40)
Pergamon, Mysia, c. 330 - 284 B.C.
Pergamon, Mysia was located to the northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey, 16 miles (26 km) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the Caicus (Bakircay) River. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty, 281-133 B.C. Pergamon is cited in the book of Revelation as one of the seven churches of Asia.GS64046. Silver diobol, BMC Mysia p. 111, 9 (PERGAMH); SNG Kayhan 66; cf. SNG BnF 1558 ff.; SNG Cop 322; SNGvA 1350; SNG Delepierre 2534; Von Fritze 10, aVF, toned, scratches and bumps, weight 1.251 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon (Bergama, Turkey) mint, c. 310 - 282 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing a Nemean Lion's scalp headdress; reverse cultus statue of Athena standing facing (Palladium), kalathos, drapery hanging over both shoulders, spear in right hand, shield in left hand with dangling fillet, ΠEPΓAMH upward on left; $100.00 (€88.00)
Ziz (Panormos), Punic Sicily, c. 405 - 380 B.C.
Some authorities have identified the male head on the obverse as Apollo. Indeed, on some examples the head does resemble other depictions of the youthful sun god, but on other examples the god is horned. On this coin the head seems to better resemble traditional depictions of Herakles or Baal. The type usually has the Punic ethnic above the bull. Sometimes it is below. Most likely it should be above on this coin but is merely unstruck.GS79961. Silver obol, cf. Jenkins Punic (SNR 50) 14; BMC Sicily p. 249, 27; SNG ANS 551; SGCV I 889 (all w/ Punic ethnic "sys" above bull), aVF, toned, reverse slightly off center, weight 0.547 g, maximum diameter 9.1 mm, die axis 45o, Ziz (Palermo, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 405 - 380 B.C.; obverse male head left; reverse man-faced bull advancing left, head turned facing; $100.00 (€88.00)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia
Mount Erciyes (Argaios to the Greeks, Argaeus to the Romans) is a massive stratovolcano 25 km to the south of Kayseri (ancient Caesarea) in Turkey. The highest mountain in central Anatolia, with its summit reaching 3,916 meters (12,848 ft). It may have erupted as recently as 253 B.C., as may be depicted on Roman era coins. Strabo wrote that the summit was never free from snow and that those few who ascended it reported seeing both the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south in days with a clear sky.RP87685. Silver didrachm, cf. RPC IV Online 10073; Metcalf Cappadocia 146a; SNGvA 6441; SNG Cop 250 var. (legends); Sydenham Cappadocia Supp. 370a var. (same); BMC Galatia -, aVF, frosty porous surfaces, bumps and marks, tine edge split, reverse legend ending in exergue is obscure, weight 3.343 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, COS III, 181 - 182 A.D.; obverse AYT M AYPH KOMO - ANTΩNINOC C, laureate head right; reverse UΠATOC Γ - ΠAT ΠA-[TP...(?)], Mount Argaios with rocks and trees, surmounted by Helios standing left on summit, globe in his right hand, long scepter in left hand; $100.00 (€88.00)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
In 212 A.D. construction began on the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. These were the second largest Roman public baths, or thermae. Completed in 217 A.D. They would have had to install over 2,000 tons of material every day for six years in order to complete it in this time. Records show that the idea for the baths were drawn up by Septimius Severus, and merely completed or opened in the lifetime of Caracalla. This would allow for a longer construction time-frame. They are today a tourist attraction. RS88434. Silver denarius, RIC IV 227, RSC III 529, BMCRE V 99, Hunter III 20, SRCV II 6879, Choice VF, excellent portrait, full borders on a broad flan, flow lines, toned, small edge splits, weight 3.641 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 210 - 213; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverse PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM (providence of the Gods), Providentia standing half left, wand in right over globe at feet, long scepter vertical in left; ex Harlan J Berk, ex Seaby with round tag handwritten by David Sear c. 1966; $100.00 (€88.00)
Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Hetoum I, 1226 - 1270 A.D.
As the Mongols approached, King Hetoum made a strategic decision to send his brother Smpad to the Mongol court in Karakorum and agree to become a vassal state of the Mongol Empire. In 1254, Hetoum himself traveled to Mongolia to renew the agreement. The account of his travels, "The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back" is still important for its observations of Mongol, Buddhist, and Chinese culture, geography, and wildlife. The Mamluks invaded Armenia in 1266, taking 40,000 Armenians captive, including Hetoum's son, Leo. Hetoum abdicated in 1270 in favor of his son Leo, and lived out the rest of his life in a monastery, as a Franciscan monk.CR89073. Silver tram, cf. Nercessian 332, aVF, toned, weight 2.870 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 90o, Sis mint, obverse Armenian legend: Hetoum king of the Armenians, crowned lion standing right, long cross in center on far side dividing legend above; reverse Armenian legend: By the will of God, King Hetoum (on right) and Queen Zabel standing holding long cross between them, star low on shaft; ex Munzhandlung Ritter (Düsseldorf, Germany); $100.00 (€88.00)
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, Ionia, c. 350 - 320 B.C.
Magnesia ad Maeandrum was an inland city of Ionia, located on a small tributary of the Maeander River about 12 miles southeast of Ephesus. "..the temple of Artemis Leukophryene, which in the size of its shrine and in the number of its votive offerings is inferior to the temple at Ephesos, but in the harmony and skill shown in the structure of the sacred enclosure is far superior to it. And in size it surpasses all the sacred enclosures in Asia except two, that at Ephesos (to Artemis) and that at Didymoi (to Apollo)" -- Strabo, Geography 14. 1. 40.GS90991. Silver hemidrachm, Weber 5996; BMC Ionia p. 159, 11; SNG Kayhan 414 ff. var. (different magistrate); SNG Cop 809 var. (same), F, toned, tight flan, weight 1.316 g, maximum diameter 12.3 mm, die axis 45o, Magnesia ad Maeandrum (near Tekin, Turkey) mint, c. 350 - 320 B.C.; obverse Cavalryman on horseback prancing right, wearing helmet, cuirass, and chlamys, holding couched spear; reverse bull butting left atop Maeander pattern, MAΓN above, stalk of grain right, MIKYΘOΣ (magistrate) below; $100.00 (€88.00)
Abydos, Troas, 4th Century B.C.
Abydos is located on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont (Dardanelles), at the shortest crossing point, scarcely a mile across from Sestus on the European side. In the Iliad, Abydos was an ally of the Trojans (Iliad ii.836) and it is the mythical home of Leander. Persians occupied it in 514 B.C. and Darius burned it in 512. When he invaded Greece in 480 B.C., Xerxes built his two bridges of boats across the strait from Abydos. Abydos became a member of the Delian League, but revolted against Athens in 411 B.C. It allied itself to Sparta, until 394 B.C. Then it passed under Achaemenid rule until 334. Alexander the Great threw a spear to Abydos while crossing the strait and claimed Asia as his own. Abydos is celebrated for the vigorous resistance it made against Philip V of Macedon in 200 B.C. The city minted coins from the early fifth century B.C. to the mid-third century A.D. GS91349. Silver hemidrachm, SNG Berry 979; SNG Cop 9; BMC Troas p. 3, 17; SNG München 12 (club in exergue); SNGvA -, gF, well centered on a tight flan, toned, minor deposits, weight 2.519 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 0o, Abydos mint, magistrate Efaistoleos, 4th century B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ABY, eagle standing right, Nike holding wreath flying left (control symbol) lower left, HΦAIΣTOΛEΩΣ (magistrate name) downward on right, club(?) left below; $100.00 (€88.00)
Leontini, Sicily, c. 476 - 466 B.C., Unofficial Imitative
The low weight, crude style, and retrograde ethnic indicate this was not an official issue of the city but, more likely, an imitative. Hoover identifies it as an imitative in the Handbook of Coins of Sicily (HGC 2).GS91173. Silver litra, cf. HGC 2 688 (R2) (same); BMC Sicily p. 88; 22 (same retrograde legend, 0.635g); Boehringer Leontini pl. 10, B (similarly crude), VF, well centered, crude style, half the usual weight, weight 0.289 g, maximum diameter 9.7 mm, die axis 330o, unofficial Sicilian mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; obverse crude facing lion scalp, linear border; reverse ΛE-ON (retrograde, counterclockwise from upper right), barley kernel, linear border; ex Beast Coins, ex Imperial Coins & Artifacts; very rare; $100.00 (€88.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
This reverse type announces Severus' achievement of Peace. Hence the emperor is wearing civilian clothes and holding the same branch which is usually held by the goddess Pax.RS91224. Silver denarius, RIC IV 265; RSC III 205; BMCRE V p. 217, 330; Hunter III 87; SRCV II 6282, Choice VF, well centered, nice portrait, edge cracks, weight 3.177 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 201 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse FVNDATOR PACIS (founder of peace), Severus standing left, togate, olive branch in right hand, scroll in left; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 76 (7 Apr 2019), part of lot 942; $100.00 (€88.00)