of Chalkis, Coele , Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) on the throne of (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, had him executed, and gave his territory to VII.GB90942. Bronze AE 19, 11.g, 4769, 145 , 1243, -, VF, 3.505 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; veiled female right, no ; double , flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very ; $270.00 (€240.30)
, Italy, The Brettian League, Allies of Hannibal, c. 216 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Hannibalis, in . The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of . Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by Rome for menial .GI84160. Bronze , 19 ( ); 1672; 57; 1284; 351; p. 328, 76; 1978, VF, lacking due to off center and , 7.834 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 214 - 208 B.C.; laureate of Zeus right, ear of grain (control symbol) behind; BPET−TIΩN (clockwise from upper right), standing left on thunderbolt, (control symbol) left; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17, 650; 46; 613 var. (divided ); p. 131, 12 var. (same), VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; ; $135.00 (€120.15)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, 650; 46; 613; p. 131, 12, F, 3.792 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; ; $135.00 (€120.15)
Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI the Great, c. 120 - 63 B.C., Anonymous Coinage
Mithradates VI (the Great) was of in northern Anatolia from about 119 to 63 B.C. He was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and Darius I of . Mithradates is remembered as one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the most prominent generals of the late Roman Republic in the so-called Mithridatic Wars: , Lucullus, and . After Mithradates VI was at last defeated by Pompey and in danger of capture by Rome, he attempted suicide. The poison failed because he had taken daily doses to build immunity. He then made his bodyguard and friend, Bituitus, kill him by the sword.GB84575. Bronze AE 26, cf. 310 (S), 649, 973, 232 (all SNG refs. with same countermarks, none with this ), gF, dark , thick heavy as usual for the , bumps and marks, light corrosion, 19.920 g, maximum 25.6 mm, uncertain (Amisos?) mint, c. 130 - 100 B.C.; male left in a satrapal leather cap; countermarks: helmet in round punch, in round punch, (thunderbolt) in a rectangular punch; of eight rays, bow facing inward, between rays; ; $110.00 (€97.90)
Parthian Kingdom, Vologases I, 51 - 78 A.D.
"We cannot tell whether the use of 'lord' rather than 'king' implies a subordinate status; probably the rulers themselves were uncertain of the exact implications and it would be unwise to try to read too much into it." -- , NC 1989, p. 163.
GS65700. Silver , pl. 42, 1; 426; 379; LNV 3 143; -, VF, , , porous, 1.248 g, maximum 11.6 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, 51 - 78 A.D.; bare-headed left, medium length beard, wavy hair, wearing diadem with loop at the top and two ends, two-line neck torque has no ends, of dots; archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne holding bow, left foot drawn back, somewhat blundered Greek reading, with emendations: OΛIΓACOO[Y] TO[Y] KYPIY (Vologases the lord); $90.00 (€80.10)
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in . Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his , he famously replied: "Another such and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric , a achieved at ruinous cost.GI75171. Bronze ON RESERVE
, II p. 321, 176; 813, 852; 1214; , 1451, VF/F, 11.494 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 270o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; of Herakles left, clad in scalp headdress; ΣYPA−KOΣIΩN, Promachos advancing right, hurling thunderbolt with right, in left; $90.00 (€80.10)
, , , Early 3rd Century B.C.
Agathocles, the tyrant of , died in 289 B.C. He the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as . The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves (Sons of ), seized Messana in northeast . The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. was weakened by his loss and began a renewal of their power in .GB76852. Bronze AE 17, 94, 22, 1674 (S), 315, III 8486, 126, 6530, -, F, , green , areas of corrosion, 3.626 g, maximum 16.6 mm, 90o, or uncertain Sicilian mint, early 3rd century B.C.; date tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no , or ; unbridled horse standing right, turned back looking left, no , or ; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to , and then to , before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or , but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.GB65641. Bronze half unit, 126, 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), 1626 ff., 897, 15, aVF, rough, nice green , 5.015 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 270o, or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; male left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; free horse prancing right, short below rear hooves, linear ; $70.00 (€62.30)
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72291. Bronze AE 15, 60 (Sardinia); 224 ( ); 274, Fair/Fine, small , 1.612 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing of grain; horse right; ; $36.00 (€32.04)
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