France, III, 1574 - 1589
Three months after Henri was made the elected of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, his brother, Charles IX of France, died and Henri returned to France to assume the French throne. Henri brought several Polish inventions back to France, including septic facilities which deposited excrement outside the castle walls, a bath with regulated hot and cold water, and the fork. Henri gave protestant Huguenots the right of public worship, except in and at Court. In response, I, Duke of Guise, formed the Catholic League. Henri III was eventually forced to flee . After he had the duke assassinated, Henri III prepared to return to but was murdered before he could return. During the French Revolution, Henri III was disinterred from his tomb, his body was desecrated and thrown into a common grave.
On May 31, 1575, III created a new 14.188 grams, .833 silver coin with the value of 20 sols tournois. The gold écu was set at 60 sols. The gold franc equaled 1/3 écu or 20 sols. This coin, corresponding to the value of the medieval gold franc, naturally took the name franc d'argent (silver franc). Our coin is a franc avec fraise, distinguished from the franc au col plat by the addition of a lace ruff to the king's collar. It was unique to the Toulouse mint. Due to constant clipping, the coinage of francs was suspended for on October 13, 1586. After the death of the , however, mints held by the Catholic League struck francs in his name.SH84614. Silver franc, 1130A, 1434, 3612, 970, aVF, , 13.995 g, maximum 35.2 mm, 180o, Toulouse (M) mint, 1586; •HENRICVS•III D•G FRANC ET•POL•REX• ( III, by the grace of god, of France and Poland), laureate and of III, ruffled collar, M (Toulouse workshop letter) below , 1586 at bottom between end and beginning of ; * SIT•NOMEN•DOMINI•BENEDICTVM S (Blessed be the name of the Lord), fleurée, H surrounded by dots in the center; $675.00 (€600.75)
, Edward III, 1327 - 1377
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most efficient military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in the evolution of the English parliament, the ravages of the Black Death and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. He remained on the throne for 50 years.
The outer abbreviates, "BENEDICTUM SIT NOMEN DOMINI DEI IHESU CHRISTI," which means, "Blessed be the name of the Lord our God, Jesus Christ."
ME85375. Silver Gros Tournois a la Porte, 8063, 63, 1067, 120, d'Avant 2856, –, gF, , , 2.478 g, maximum 23.9 mm, 270o, 1351 - 1356; ED'· REX : A*nGLIE / + BnDICTV · SIT · : DnI : nRI : DEI : IhV · XPI (annulet and double annulet stops, secret mark: asterisk between A and n), short ; + DVX : AQITA*nIE (double annulet stops, secret mark: asterisk between A and n), châtel aquitanique, gateway below; all within of arches containing twelve leaves; ; $265.00 (€235.85)
France, Strasbourg, Louis XIV, 1684
The Free City of Strasbourg remained neutral during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and retained its status as a Free Imperial City. However, the city was later annexed by Louis XIV of France to extend the borders of his kingdom. Louis' advisors believed that, as long as Strasbourg remained independent, it would endanger the King's newly annexed territories in Alsace, and, that to defend these large rural lands effectively, a garrison had to be placed in towns such as Strasbourg. Indeed, the bridge over the Rhine at Strasbourg had been used repeatedly by Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) forces, and three times during the Franco-Dutch War Strasbourg had served as a gateway for Imperial invasions into Alsace. In September 1681 Louis' forces, though lacking a clear casus belli, surrounded the city with overwhelming force. After some negotiation, Louis marched into the city unopposed on 30 September 1681 and proclaimed its annexation.SH84610. Silver Sol, 2054, 87, 1599, KM 245, VF, , light deposits, 0.936 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 180o, Strasbourg mint, 1684; MON• NOV• ARGENTINENSIS (new currency of Strasbourg), fleur-de-lis; * • IN• EXCELSIS• DEO• (glory to God in heaven), •I• / •SOL• / 1684 in three lines; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; $200.00 (€178.00)
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