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Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.RA91193. Silvered antoninianus, MER-RIC 4105 (17 spec.), RIC V-1 210, BnF XII 1827, Hunter IV 71, Venèra -, Choice EF, full silvering, full border centering, nice portrait, weight 4.455 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, issue 3, Jan - Jun 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Emperor (on left) standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, long scepter vertical in left hand, H in center, XXI in exergue; $220.00 (€193.60)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.
Felicitas was the goddess of good luck and success. She was a prominent symbol of wealth and prosperity and, during the Empire, she played an important role in Rome's state religion. Since it was considered the duty of the emperor to promote public happiness, almost every emperor struck coins dedicated to Felicitas.RS92466. Silver denarius, RIC III 65, BMCRE IV 111, RSC II 905, Hunter II -, SRCV II -, Choice gVF, nice portrait, dark old collection toning, flow lines, edge cracks, weight 2.611 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 183 A.D.; obverse M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS, laureate head right; reverse TR P VIII IMP VI COS IIII P P, Providentia standing slightly left, head left, wand in right hand held over globe at feet on left, long scepter vertical in left; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $185.00 (€162.80)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
In 230 A.D., Severus Alexander made Thessaly a separate province from Macedonia. He increased taxes in order to maintain the war against the Sassanids and strengthened the defenses of the Roman Empire. RS89483. Silver denarius, RSC III 401, RIC IV 105a, BMCRE VI 616, SRCV II 7911, Hunter III 55 var. (slight drapery), Choice EF, excellent portrait, light tone, flow lines, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.546 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 15o, Rome mint, 230 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P VIIII COS III P P, emperor standing right in military dress, laureate, transverse spear in right hand, globe in left hand; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 73, part of lot 970; $160.00 (€140.80)
Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D.
When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.RS89696. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 218d, RSC IV 48, Hunter V 8, SRCV III 9240, EF, excellent portrait, flow lines, reverse die wear, reverse off center, weight 4.528 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 244 - 246 A.D.; obverse M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENT (to the Prince of Youth), Philip II standing slightly left, head left, wearing military dress, globe in extended right hand, inverted spear in left hand; ex Beast Coins; $140.00 (€123.20)
Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
In late summer or fall of 161, Vologases IV of Parthia captured the Roman client Kingdom of Armenia, expelled its king and installed his own; Pacorus, an Arsacid like himself. In 162, Lucius Verus began the war to recover Armenia and exact vengeance for Parthia's invasions of Armenia and Syria. The Armenian capital Artaxata was recovered in 163. At the end of 163, Verus took the title Armeniacus, despite having never personally seen combat. Marcus Aurelius initially declined to accept the title, but accepted it in 164.RS92457. Silver denarius, RIC III 491, RSC II156, BMCRE IV 229, Hunter II 8, SRCV II 5354, Choice F, well centered, flow lines, edge cracks, weight 3.279 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 162 - 163 A.D.; obverse IMP L VERVS AVG, bare head right; reverse PROV DEOR TR P III COS II (to the providence of the gods, holder of Tribunitian power for 3 years, consul 2 times), Providentia standing half left, globe in extended right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $130.00 (€114.40)
Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
Posthumous commemorative struck by Marcus Aurelius' son, Commodus.RB91948. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III C654 (S); BMCRE IV C385; Hunter II p. 408, 14; SRCV II 5982; Szaivert MIR 481-6/10; Cohen III 89, aVF, dark patina, well centered, weak reverse strike, weight 23.965 g, maximum diameter 31.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, consecration issue, c. 180 A.D.; obverse DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS, bare head right; reverse CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right on globe, head turned left, wings open, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking globe; scarce; $125.00 (€110.00)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
David Sear notes, "It is tempting to regard the cross in the reverse field as an early instance of Christian symbolism on the Constantinian Coinage."RL89937. Billon follis, RIC VII Ticinum 45, SRCV IV 16088, Cohen VII 536, Hunter V -, Choice VF, excellent centering, turquoise-green patina, weight 2.994 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, cross left, star right, PT in exergue; $120.00 (€105.60)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RB92486. Bronze as, RIC IV 519 (S); Hunter III 83; BMCRE V p. 412, 259; Cohen IV 533, SRCV II -, VF, nice style, corrosion, small edge splits, weight 9.631 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 211 - 213 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverse PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Providentia standing facing, head left, baton in right hand held over globe at feet, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $120.00 (€105.60)
Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was made Caesar before he was a year old. Upon his father's death, Constantine II inherited the Western empire. After quarreling with his brother, Constans, he invaded his territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia.RB89939. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII Siscia 37 (R3), SRCV IV 17110, Cohen VII 50, Hunter V -, Choice aEF, excellent centering, attractive green patina, flow lines, weight 3.201 g, maximum diameter 20.35 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, as caesar, 317 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE (the renown of the Republic), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe in left hand, ΓSIS in exergue; scarce; $115.00 (€101.20)
Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own. RT92328. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 43, SRCV IV 14388, Cohen VII 120, Hunter V -, Choice gVF, excellent centering, traces of silvering, mild porosity, weight 9.913 g, maximum diameter 26.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, as caesar, c. 304 - 1 Mar 305 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONS CAES (to Jove protector of the prince), Jupiter standing left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and draped behind, Victory on globe holding wreath and palm frond in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - P flanking across field, B upper right, ALE in exergue; $100.00 (€88.00)