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Phocaea, or Phokaia, was the northernmost Ionian city, on the boundary with Aeolis, near the mouth of the river Hermus (now Gediz), on a peninsula separating the Gulf of Cyme to the north, and the Gulf of Smyrna (now İzmir) to the south. Phocaea had two harbors, allowing it to develop a thriving seafaring economy, and to become a great naval power. The Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages and founded the colonies Massalia (Marseille, France), Emporion (Empúries, Catalonia, Spain), and Elea (Velia, Campania, Italy). Phocaea was independent until all of mainland Ionia fell under Croesus of Lydia (c. 560-545 B.C.). In 546 B.C., Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia. After the Greeks defeated Xerxes I in 480 B.C., Phocaea joined the Delian League. In 412 B.C., it rebelled with the rest of Ionia and in 387 B.C. Phocaea returned to Persian control. After Alexander, it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid, and finally Roman rule.
|Io was a priestess ofin Argos. Zeus lusted for her. In the version of the myth told in Bound she initially rejected Zeus' advances, until her father threw her out of his house on the advice of oracles. According to some stories, Zeus then turned Io into a heifer to hide her from his wife; others maintain that it was jealous that transformed Io. The female on this coin can be identified as Io by the horn and the with beaded tassels worn by heifers or bulls selected for sacrifice to Zeus, as seen in the image right. She was an ancestor of many kings and heroes such as Perseus, Cadmus, Heracles, Minos, Lynceus, Cepheus, and Danaus. The astronomer Simon named a moon of after Io in 1614.|