, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis , the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."RS79611. Silver , 293d; 389; p. 465, 194; 6848, -, EF, portrait, centering and strike, lustrous, tiny edge cracks, 3.157 g, maximum 19.9 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 217 A.D.; ANTONINVS AVG , laureate right; XX P P, Sol standing slightly left, left, nude but for over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding , whip in left hand; $350.00 (€311.50)
, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D.
In Roman religion, every man has a , a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of . Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a . On coins, we find inscriptions to the of the Roman people, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc.RS79615. Silver , 59(a); 114; p. 274, 579; 24; 7187, EF, portrait, mint luster, near perfect centering, small edge cracks, 3.737 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; P SEPTIMIVS , bearded, draped right, from behind; , standing left, sacrificing from in right hand over flaming , ears of grain downward in left hand; $350.00 (€311.50)
, Augusta c. 79 - 89 A.D.
was the daughter of the emperor , and although married, she had an affair with her uncle . In 83 A.D., divorced his wife and lived openly with her. It has been said that she died because forced her to have an abortion but modern research indicates this allegation is false.SH72986. Silver , 14; 141; , 1, 56; p. 275, 1; 106; 2612, F, slightly , 3.030 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 79 - 81 A.D.; IVLIA TITI , diademed and draped right, hair in a long plait in back; , standing right, viewed from behind, nude to the hips, right knee bent, leaning with left elbow and forearm on column, transverse spear on far side in left hand, raising up helmet in right hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection collection, ex Zuzim (2012); only the second example of this handled by ; ; $340.00 (€302.60)
, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D.
was assassinated near on 8 April 217, while urinating on a roadside. When his escort gave him privacy to relieve himself, Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard, ran forward and killed with a single sword stroke. Martialis fled on horseback, but was killed by a bodyguard archer. Herodian says had executed Martialis' brother a few days earlier on an unproven charge. Cassius Dio says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. , the Praetorian Guard Prefect, who succeeded him as emperor, may have arranged the assassination.RS77609. Silver , 76, 37, 20, 7337, -, gVF, bold strike on a broad , 2.948 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 217 A.D.; IMP C M SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and right, from front; (to the protector), standing slightly left, nude but for over arms, thunderbolt in right hand, long vertical behind in left, small figure of at feet before him; $300.00 (€267.00)
, "Thasian" , c. 148 - 80 B.C.
This Dionysos / Herakles was first struck by Thasos itself on the island and in its continental territories in the South of the Balkans, c. 168 - 148 B.C. After Rome took control of the , "Thasian" types were struck by Roman authorities, c. 148 - 80 B.C., mainly in but also, perhaps, by mobile military mints on campaigns. Imitatives were also struck by at least several tribal groups (mainly or mixed enclaves) from as early as 120 - 100 B.C. to about 20 - 10 B.C.GS79632. Silver , , group XIV, 24, cf. 1100 - 1104 (V CD3 / -); 1046, VF, centered, , struck with a worn die, scrape on chin, scratches and marks, 16.690 g, maximum 33.1 mm, 0o, Roman provincial or military mint, c. 148 - 80 B.C.; of Dionysos right, wearing and wreathed in flowering ivy; HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN, Herakles standing half left, nude but for Nemean lion's skin on left arm, resting right hand on grounded club before him, left hand on hip, inner left; $300.00 (€267.00)
, "Thasian" , c. 148 - 80 B.C.
This Dionysos / Herakles was first struck by Thasos itself on the island and in its continental territories in the South of the Balkans, c. 168 - 148 B.C. After Rome took control of the , "Thasian" types were struck by Roman authorities, c. 148 - 80 B.C., mainly in but also, perhaps, by mobile military mints on campaigns. Imitatives were also struck by at least several tribal groups (mainly or mixed enclaves) from as early as 120 - 100 B.C. to about 20 - 10 B.C.GS79635. Silver , , group XVI, 1226 (O DD4 / R 989); 1040 ff., VF, nice , light , bumps and scratches, die wear, 16.787 g, maximum 33.2 mm, 0o, Roman provincial or military mint, c. 148 - 80 B.C.; of Dionysos right, wearing and wreathed in flowering ivy; HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN, Herakles standing half left, nude but for Nemean lion's skin on left arm, resting right hand on grounded club before him, left hand on hip, MH inner left; $300.00 (€267.00)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
The as is a for .SH66874. Copper as, 683, 527A, 313 (4 Fr), VF, 11.298 g, maximum 24.5 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; L SEPT SEV IIII, laureate right; , walking right, nude but for helmet and cloak over shoulder flying behind, transverse spear in right hand, of captured arms in left over shoulder; very ; $200.00 (€178.00)
The Perrhaiboi, , , 4th Century B.C.
The Perrhaiboi were a Pelasgian (indigenous non-Greek) tribal people who lived in Perrhaibia, which was of proper and bordered . In the Iliad, Homer wrote of "the valiant Perrhaiboi, who dwelt about wintry Dodona, and held the lands round the lovely river Titaresios, which sends its waters into the Peneus."GB84106. Bronze trichalkon, 556, 438, 196, 156, cf. I 1244 ( , in one line on right), -, VF, fantastic , nice , rough, 8.934 g, maximum 20.7 mm, 0o, Perrhaiboi mint, 4th century B.C.; veiled of facing slightly left, wearing necklace; Zeus standing left, nude, thunderbolt in right hand, long vertical in left hand, ΠEPPAI/BΩN in two downward lines, the first on the right, the second lower left; $200.00 (€178.00)
Solus (Kefra), , c. 395 - 350 B.C.
GI76344. Bronze tetras, I p. 310, 5; I pl. 23, 20; 740 ff.; 909; 672; 1254; -; -; -, gF, green , 2.235 g, maximum 13.1 mm, Kefra (near Solanto, , Italy) mint, Carthaginian occupation, c. 395 - 350 B.C.; of facing slightly right, wearing Corinthian helmet; Punic : KFRA, nude archer kneeling right, wearing , shooting arrow; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
In 318, Constantine was given the title for victories in Britain. The details of the battles are unknown.RL71415. , 15/4, 164, 16083, 536, Nice VF, attractive green with red earthen highlighting, 3.616 g, maximum 19.1 mm, 315o, 1st , ( , France) mint, 318 A.D.; IMP CONSTANTINVS , laureate, draped, and right; (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, , nude but for cloak over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, P in crescent in ; ; $140.00 (€124.60)
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