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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ History ▸ Enemies of RomeView Options:  |  |  | 

Enemies of Rome

Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt, 132 - 135 A.D.

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In 134, the Romans captured Jerusalem. Simon bar Kokhba was killed in 135, at Betar, a fortress where he had taken refuge. Jerusalem, largely destroyed, was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina. Legio VI Ferrata rebuilt the legionary fortress in the city and constructed a Roman temple at Golgotha. An altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem. Although, resistance continued in Galilee, the Jewish diaspora began as Emperor Hadrian barred Jews from Jerusalem and had survivors of the massacre dispersed across the Roman Empire. Many were sold into slavery. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.
JD84994. Bronze AE 26, Mildenberg 77; SNG ANS 530; BMC Palestine p. 307, 38; Hendin 1408a; Meshorer TJC 259b, F, uneven strike, small edge crack, porous, weight 7.954 g, maximum diameter 25.6 mm, die axis 180o, year 2 (133 - 134 A.D.); obverse seven branched palm tree with two bunches of dates, Paleo-Hebrew inscription: "Shimon" flanking trunk; reverse Paleo-Hebrew inscription: "Year 2 of the freedom of Israel", five-lobed vine-leaf, hanging from tendril; $250.00 (€212.50)
 


Brettii, Bruttium, Italy, c. 211 - 203 B.C.

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All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.
GB85690. Bronze reduced uncia, Scheu Bronze 103 (C), SNG ANS 90, HN Italy 2006, gVF, attractive style, nice green patina, obverse a little off center but full head on flan, weight 8.555 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, Brettii mint, c. 211 - 203 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, within laurel wreath; reverse BPET−TIΩN, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open, lyre (control symbol) lower left; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6 (22 Feb 2014), lot 14; $150.00 (€127.50)
 


Bruttium, Italy, The Brettian League, Allies of Hannibal, c. 216 - 203 B.C.

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All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his victory at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Castra Hannibalis, in Bruttium. The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of Bruttium. Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by Rome for menial work.
GI84160. Bronze drachm, Scheu Bronze 19 (rare); SNG Cop 1672; SNG ANS 57; SNG Munchen 1284; SNG Morcom 351; BMC Italy p. 328, 76; HN Italy 1978, VF, lacking legend due to off center and uneven strike, weight 7.834 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 90o, Kroton (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 214 - 208 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, ear of grain (control symbol) behind; reverse BPET−TIΩN (clockwise from upper right), eagle standing left on thunderbolt, hexagram (control symbol) left; rare; $140.00 (€119.00)
 


Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI Eupator the Great, c. 120 - 63 B.C., Anonymous Coinage

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Mithradates VI Megas (the Great) was king of Pontus in northern Anatolia from about 119 to 63 B.C. He was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and King Darius I of Persia. Mithradates is remembered as one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the most prominent generals of the late Roman Republic in the so-called Mithridatic Wars: Sulla, Lucullus, and Pompey the Great. After Mithradates VI was at last defeated by Pompey and in danger of capture by Rome, he attempted suicide. The poison failed because he had taken daily doses to build immunity. He then made his bodyguard and friend, Bituitus, kill him by the sword.
GB84575. Bronze AE 26, cf. HGC 7 310 (S), SNG Stancomb 649, SNG BM 973, SNG Cop 232 (all SNG refs. with same countermarks, none with this monogram), gF, dark patina, thick heavy flan as usual for the type, bumps and marks, light corrosion, weight 19.920 g, maximum diameter 25.6 mm, uncertain (Amisos?) mint, c. 130 - 100 B.C.; obverse male head left in a satrapal leather bashlik cap; countermarks: helmet in round punch, gorgoneion in round punch, fulmen (thunderbolt) in a rectangular punch; reverse star of eight rays, bow facing inward, monogram between rays; scarce; $95.00 (€80.75)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB73614. Bronze AE 20, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613; BMC Italy p. 131, 12, F, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; rare; $90.00 (€76.50)
 


Brettian League, Bruttium, Italy, c. 214 - 211 B.C., Time of Hannibal

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All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.
GI84833. Bronze quarter unit, Scheu Bronze 27, SNG Cop 1679, HN Italy 1982, F, toned copper surfaces, a little rough, weight 2.682 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 135o, Brettii mint, c. 214 - 211 B.C.; obverse NIKA, diademed head of Nike left, head of grain behind; reverse BPETTIΩN, Zeus standing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right hand, long scepter in extended left hand, star between legs, cornucopia right; $90.00 (€76.50)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 310 - 280 B.C.

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In 311 B.C., Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, invaded the Carthaginian holdings on Sicily and laid siege to Akragas. Hamilcar led the Carthaginian response, and by 310 controlled almost all of Sicily and laid siege to Syracuse itself. In desperation, Agathocles secretly led an expedition of 14,000 men to Africa, hoping to save his rule by leading a counterstrike against Carthage itself. Carthage was forced to recall Hamilcar and most of his army from Sicily. Agathocles was eventually defeated in 307 B.C., but he escaped back to Sicily and negotiated a peace which maintained Syracuse as a stronghold of Greek power in Sicily.
GB85957. Bronze AE 15, Viola CNP 194; Alexandropoulos 18; SNG VIII Cop 109 ff.; Müller Afrique p. 94, 163; SGCV II 6444, VF, nice green patina, centered on a tight flan, scratches, corrosion, earthen deposits, edge chips, weight 2.317 g, maximum diameter 15.4 mm, die axis 225o, North African or Sicilian mint, c. 310 - 280 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; reverse horse standing right, date palm tree in background center; $90.00 (€76.50)
 


Celtic, Senones, Gaul (Area of Sens, France), c. 100 - 50 B.C.

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In about 400 B.C. the Senones crossed the Alps and, having driven out the Umbrians, settled on the east coast of Italy from Forlì to Ancona (ager Gallicus), and founded Sena Gallica (Senigallia) their capital. In 391 B.C., they invaded Etruria and besieged Clusium. The Clusines appealed to Rome, which led to war. In 390 B.C. (or 387 B.C.), the Senones routed the Roman army at Allia and then sacked Rome. For more than 100 years the Senones were engaged in hostilities with Rome. They were finally subdued in 283 B.C. by P. Cornelius Dolabella and driven from Italy. In Gaul, from 53 to 51 B.C., the Senones engaged in hostilities with Julius Caesar, brought about by their expulsion of Cavarinus, whom he had appointed their king. In 51 B.C., a Senonian named Drappes threatened the Provincia, but was captured and starved himself to death. Their chief towns were Agedincum (later Senones, whence Sens), Metiosedum (Melun?), and Vellaunodunum (site uncertain).
CE85976. Cast potin, CCCBM III 433 & S459, Delestrée-Tache 2645, De La Tour 7445, Scheers Traité 793, Scheers S-M 384, VF, weight 2.892 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, obverse head right, with wild hair; reverse boar standing right, three pellets below; scarce; $80.00 (€68.00)
 







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Enemies of Rome