Roman Republic, Lead Glandes Sling-Bullet, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
According to the report of Vegatius, Republican slingers had an accurate range of up to six hundred feet. The best ammunition was cast from lead. For a given mass, lead, being very dense, offered the minimum size and therefore minimum air resistance. Also, lead sling-bullets were small and difficult to see in flight. In some cases, the lead would be cast in a simple open mold made by pushing a finger, thumb, or sharpened stick into sand and pouring molten metal into the hole. The flat top end could later be carved to a matching shape. More frequently, they were cast in two-part molds. Sling-bullets were made in a variety of shapes including an ellipsoidal form closely resembling an acorn; possibly the origin of the Latin word for lead sling-bullet: glandes plumbeae (literally leaden acorns) or simply glandes (meaning acorns, singular glans). The most common shape by far was biconical, resembling the shape of an almond or an American football. Why the almond shape was favored is unknown. Possibly there was some aerodynamic advantage, but it seems equally likely that there was a more prosaic reason, such as the shape being easy to extract from a mold, or that it will rest in a cradle with little danger of rolling out. Almond-shaped lead sling-bullets were typically about 35 millimeters (1.4 in) long and about 20 millimeters (0.8 in) wide. Sometimes or writings were molded on the side. A thunderbolt, a snake, a scorpion, or others indicating how it might strike without warning were popular. might include the name of the military unit or commander, or was sometimes more imaginative, such as, "Take this," "Ouch," "Catch," or even "For Pompey's backside."AW66458. Lead glandes sling-bullet; cf. Petrie XLIV 15-23; roughly biconical, c. 40 - 90 grams, c. 3 - 5 cm long, one sling-bullet randomly selected from the same group as those in the photo, ONE BULLET, BARGAIN PRICED!; $25.00 (€22.25)
Ptolemaic Kyrenaica, Ptolemy III - Ptolemy II (Physcon), 246 - 116 B.C.
Alexander the Great received tribute from the cities of Kyrenaica after he took . Kyrenaica was annexed by Ptolemy I . It briefly gained independence under Magas of Cyrene, stepson of Ptolemy I, but was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic empire after his death. It was separated from the main kingdom by Ptolemy and given to his son Ptolemy Apion, who, dying without heirs in 96 B.C., bequeathed it to the Roman Republic.GP65950. Bronze AE 12, 874 (Ptolemy II, 1 specimen), cf. 445 (Ptolemy III), 105 (Ptolemy V), 130 (Ptolemy III), 484 (uncertain date), VF, 0.881 g, maximum 12.0 mm, 0o, Kyrene mint, 246 - 116 B.C.; diademed of Ptolemy I right, wearing ; of right, wearing , below chin; $80.00 (€71.20)
Roman Military in , c. 168 B.C., Imitative of from , ,
notes crude imitations seem to have been struck in just prior to the Roman in 168 B.C. During the Republic, Roman military mints sometimes struck imitative types to make local payments. Examples include Thasian imitatives in and Philip imitatives at Antioch. This tetrobol is almost certainly one of the imitatives struck in by the Roman military.GS77476. Silver tetrobol, See p. 233 note following 2498; regarding imitatives of a 2nd century B.C. from , , , F, , 2.048 g, maximum 15.3 mm, 180o, Roman military(?) mint, c. 168 B.C.; of nymph right, wreathed with vine, hair rolled; IΣTIAEΩN, nymph seated right on stern of a galley holding naval , ornate , wing ornament on hull, trident and below; $66.66 (€59.33)
, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her could not be stained with blood. began the construction of a magnificent temple to her , which finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the , the olive branch, the , and often the . Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.RA47000. , 3257, 44, 30, 1406, 1139 - 1143, VF, , much , 3.904 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, ( , France) mint, issue 1, Nov - Dec 275 A.D.; IMP C M CL TACITVS , , draped, and right; , Pax standing left, olive branch in right hand, transverse in left hand, no mark; ; $45.00 (€40.05)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 280, defeated the usurpers, at ( ), Bonosus at Agrippinensis (Cologne), and Julius Saturninus at , .RA46840. , , 2, 913, gVF, near full , 3.465 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, 5th , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 280 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS , , helmeted and left, spear in right over shoulder, on left arm; (the valor of Emperor ), emperor riding left, raising hand, captive at foot before horse, V below, XXI M(oneta) C(yzicus) in ; $45.00 (€40.05)
Thracian Tribes, c. 146 - 30 B.C., Imitative of Maroneia,
This is the only example of this with a blundered known to . We believe it much more likely a Thracian tribal imitative than a Maroneia mint error.BB54594. Bronze AE 18, cf. Maroneia 1566, p. 130, 80; 645; 805 (blundered ), VF, crude, 6.585 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 0o, Thracian tribal mint, c. 146 - 30 B.C.; wreathed of young Dionysos right; Dionysos standing left, grapes in right, in left, blundered downward on right (normally MAPΩNITΩN, appears as NEOΣ?); $45.00 (€40.05)
Seleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 152 - 145 B.C., Civic Coinage
GB59706. Bronze AE 17, p. 233, 1, 2029, 134, VF, 4.278 g, maximum 16.8 mm, 0o, of mint, 150 - 149 B.C.; turreted and veiled of right; AΠAMEΩN, warrior advancing left, looking back right, extending right hand, spear and in left, ΓΞP (year 163 of ) left; ; $45.00 (€40.05)
, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D.
In 292, the Roman general was proclaimed emperor in . For two years he ruled over , but in 294 his rebellion was crushed by Emperor .RS60443. , 435; , 2, 34; cf. 35 (1st ); 12658 var. ( ), EF, near full , , 2.795 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 292 A.D.; IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, , draped, and right; IOVI , seated left, on globe in right hand, long behind in left, uncertain letter in ; $45.00 (€40.05)
Kierion, , , c. 400 - 344 B.C.
Kierion was originally named for the Nymph on the of this coin. Most references, including BCD, identify the male god on the as Zeus. and say Poseidon. Since, according to one myth, became pregnant by Poseidon and bore the twins Aiolos and Boiotos, we think Poseidon is more likely.BB62454. Bronze , cf. 105.1; 173; 35; p. 15, 1; 1516; 679 (S), , 2.492 g, maximum 14.6 mm, 255o, Kierion mint, c. 400 - 344 B.C.; of Zeus right with a short neatly trimmed beard and his hair; KIEPIEIΩN, the nymph kneeling right on right knee, looking left, her torso bare, leaning on right hand on the ground, tossing astragaloi with left; ; $45.00 (€40.05)
Pannonian , Syrmia Region, Kugelwange (Ball Cheek) , c. 2nd Century B.C.
Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. Today, it is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the .CE68492. Bronze , cf. 471; 193/14; I S133; 199, pl. XXXII, 279; derived from the tetradrachms of , aVF, 8.947 g, maximum 24.5 mm, 180o, Syrmia mint, c. 2nd century B.C.; devolved laureate of Zeus right, hair in arcs on both sides of central point, broad laurel , ball cheek; devolved horse trotting left; $45.00 (€40.05)
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