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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Tetrarchy ▸ MaximianView Options:  |  |  | 

Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

In 286 A.D., Maximian was sent by the Emperor Diocletian against Gaulish rebels, and upon their defeat was raised to the rank of Augustus on 1 April 286. When Diocletian instituted the Tetrarchy, Maximianus was made emperor of the Western empire and seven years later Constantius I joined him as Caesar. Maximianus was forced to abdicate with Diocletian in 305 A.D., but the year after he resumed the throne with his son Maxentius. Forced to abdicate once again at the Conference of Carnute, he resumed the title of Augustus once more in 310 A.D. but was defeated and forced to commit suicide by Constantine the Great.


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"This reverse is modeled after the famous statue of the Spirit of the Roman People in the Roman Forum. It is unclear when this statue was last seen as it is now lost. Although the coins celebrate a wide range of spirits (e.g., Rome, Augustus, the Army, etc.), the basic design comes from the same statue...The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted." -- Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D. by Victor Failmezger
RT84100. Billon follis, RIC VI Siscia 83b, SRCV IV 13257, Cohen VI 184, Hunter V -, Choice VF, near full silvering, light marks, light corrosion, weight 9.180 g, maximum diameter 29.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 295 A.D.; obverse IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius of the Roman people standing left, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, modius on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, A right, *SIS in exergue; $120.00 (€106.80)
 


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This bust variation not listed in Cohen or RIC for the reverse type. No other examples online. This is only the 2nd example known to FORVM (the other cited by Bastien).
RA90486. Silvered antoninianus, Bastien XI 181 (1 example cited). RIC V 369 var. (bust), Cohen VI 265 ff. var. (same), SRCV IV 13129 var. (same), gVF, weight 4.002 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 225o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 5, autumn 287 - autumn 289 A.D.; obverse IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG, radiate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust right; reverse HERCVLI INVICTO AVGG, Hercules standing facing, head left, Victory on globe in right hand, lion-skin over left arm and leaning with left hand on club, S left; extremely rare; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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In 297, Maximian began an offensive against the Berbers in Mauritania, driving them back into their homelands in the Atlas Mountains. He spent the part of the winter in Carthage. On 10 March 297, emperor Maximian returned to Carthage making a triumphal entry into the city after having completed a successful campaign against the Berbers.
RB73639. Billon follis, RIC VI Carthage 21b (C), Cohen VI 106, SRCV IV 13231, Hunter V 66 var. (H left), F, well centered, porous, slightly rough, weight 11.058 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Carthage (near Tunis, Tunisia) mint, 1st reign, c. 297 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN (to the happy arrival of our two emperors), Africa standing facing, head left, wearing elephant-skin head-dress, vexillum in left hand, elephant tusk in right hand, lion with captured bull at feet, B left, PKS in exergue; scarce; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
RA72828. Silvered antoninianus, Bastien VII 60 (9 spec.); Cohen VI 362; RIC V, part 2, 388 var. (not listed with C in left field); SRCV IV -, Choice EF, most silvering remaining, weight 4.508 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd offficina, Lugdunum mint, 2nd emission, spring to summer 286 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing left, thunderbolt in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left; rare; $90.00 (€80.10)
 


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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About 287, Diocletian assumed the title Iovius and Maximian assumed the title Herculius. The titles were symbolic of their roles: Diocletian-Jove was dominant, responsible for planning and commanding; Maximian-Hercules had the heroic role of completing assigned tasks. Despite the symbolism, the emperors were not actually worshiped as the gods Jupiter and Hercules in the imperial cult. Instead, they were seen as the gods' instruments, imposing the gods' will on earth.
RX84180. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5907; Milne 4980; SNG Cop 1041; BMC Alexandria p. 328, 2547; Kampmann 120.49; Emmett 4130.6; Geissen -; SNG Hunterian -; SNG Milan -, VF, well centered on a tight flan, weight 7.838 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 290 - 28 Aug 291 A.D.; obverse MAΞIMIANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse Herakles standing facing, nude, Nike offering wreath in right hand, grounded club in left hand, Nemean lion's skin draped over left arm, S over L (year 6) lower left, star upper right; $90.00 (€80.10)
 


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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Variations of this type are listed with the longer A K M A OYA... obverse legend, and either without a star, with a star left or with a star upper right on the reverse.
RX84178. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5861, Geissen 3279, Milne 4795, SNG Milan 2023, SNG Hunt 4904 var. (no star), BMC Alexandria 2551 var. (star l.), Kampmann 120.8, Emmet 4113, VF, nice portrait, nice surfaces, tight flan, weight 7.262 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 1 Apr 286 - 28 Aug 286; obverse A K M OYA MAΞIMIANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse Eirene standing half left, raising olive branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, L - A (year 1) across fields, star upper right (on edge of flan); $80.00 (€71.20)
 


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About 287, Diocletian assumed the title Iovius and Maximian assumed the title Herculius. The titles were symbolic of their roles: Diocletian-Jove was dominant, responsible for planning and commanding; Maximian-Hercules had the heroic role of completing assigned tasks. Despite the symbolism, the emperors were not actually worshiped as the gods Jupiter and Hercules in the imperial cult. Instead, they were seen as the gods' instruments, imposing the gods' will on earth.
RA90483. Silvered antoninianus, Bastien VII 62 (12 examples), Cohen VI 604, RIC V 432, Hunter IV 26 var. (D center), SRCV IV -, aEF, excellent centering, some porous areas, weight 4.030 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 2, spring to summer 286 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Jupiter standing right clasping hand of Hercules standing left, Jupiter holding scepter, Hercules holding club and lion skin, C lower center; rare; $70.00 (€62.30)
 


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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In 290, Diocletian and Maximian met in Milan, on the five-year anniversary of their rule, to discuss politics and war. Rome had become only the ceremonial capital of the Empire.
RX84179. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5947, Geissen 3313, Milne 4988, Curtis 2099, SNG Cop 1044, SNG Hunt 4932, SNG Milan 2256, BMC Alexandria 2577, Kampmann 120.50, Emmett 4148.6, VF, well centered on a tight slightly ragged flan, reverse a little flat, some spots corrosion, weight 7.323 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 290 - 28 Aug 291 A.D.; obverse MAΞIMIANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse Nike flying left, wreath in right hand, palm over shoulder in left, S over L (year 6) left, star right; $70.00 (€62.30)
 


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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Homonoia was the goddess (or spirit or personification) of harmony, concord, unanimity, and oneness of mind. She is usually depicted either seated or standing with a cornucopia.
RX79598. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 4941; Dattari 5930; Kampmann 120.45; Emmett 4141.5; Geissen -; BMC Alexandria -; SNG Hunterian -; SNG Cop -; SNG Milan -, VF/F, well centered on a tight flan, light corrosion, reverse struck with a damaged die, weight 7.097 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 1 Apr 286 - 28 Aug 286; obverse A K M A OYA MAΞIMIANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse Homonoia standing left, raising right hand, double cornucopia in left hand, star left below arm, L - E (year 5) flanking across field; $50.00 (€44.50)
 


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On 1 March 293, Diocletian and Maximian appointed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World"). The four Tetrarchs established their capitals close to the Roman frontier: Diocletian at Nicomedia in Bithynia (Izmit, Turkey), Maximian at Mediolanum in Italy (Milan, Italy), Constantius at Augusta Treverorum in Gallia Belgica (Trier, Germany), and Galerius at Sirmium in Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).
RA68124. Billon antoninianus, Bastien XI 528 (2 spec.); RIC V, Part 2, 466; Cohen VI 671, VF, rough, weight 3.214 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 45o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 10, 3rd series, 1st Mar 293 - 20 Nov 293; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, scepter surmounted by eagle in right hand; reverse VOTIS X, emperors standing face to face sacrificing at altar; $45.00 (€40.05)
 







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OBVERSE LEGENDS

DIVOMAXIMIANOPATRIMAXENTIVSAVG
DIVOMAXIMIANOSENFORTIMP
DNMAXIMIANOFELICISSIMOSENAVG
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATISS
IMPCMAMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMAMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRVALMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCMAVRVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
MAXIMIANVSAVG
MAXIMIANVSAVGVSTVS
MAXIMIANVSPFAVG


REFERENCES

Bastien, P. Le monnayage de I'atelier de Lyon, Diocletien et ses coregents avant la reforme monetaire (285 - 294). (Wetteren, 1972).
Bastien, P. Le Monnayage de l'Atelier de Lyon, De la Réforme Monétaire de Dioclétien à la fermeture temporaire de l'Atelier en 316 (294 - 316). (Wetteren, 1980).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus. (Paris, 1886).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Diocletien à Constantin I (284-337). Moneta 1. (Wetteren, 1995).
Gnecchi, F. I Medaglioni Romani. (Milan, 1912).
Jelocnik, A. The Sisak Hoard of Argentei of the Early Tetrarchy. (Ljubljana, 1961).
King, C.E. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Mattingly, H., E.A. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 211).
Sutherland, R.A.C. & C.H.V. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus. (London, 1967).

Catalog current as of Wednesday, May 24, 2017.
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Roman Coins of Maximian