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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Twelve CaesarsView Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Coins of the 12 Caesars

Mark Antony and Octavia, 39 B.C., Ephesos, Ionia

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The obverse legend abbreviates Consul Designatus, Iterum et Tertium, meaning Consul Elect for the second and third time. The reverse legend abbreviates Triumvir Reipublicae Constituendae, the title adopted in November of 43 B.C. by the three Caesarian leaders (Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus) when they formed the Second Triumvirate to oppose the tyrannicides Brutus and Cassius.
SH86609. Silver cistophoric tetradrachm, RPC I 2202, Sydenham 1198, Crawford 263, RSC Octavia and M. Antony 3, Sear CRI 263, BMCRR East 135, SRCV I 1513, Choice gVF, toned, well centered, some die wear and rust, scratches, weight 11.723 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, summer - autumn 39 B.C.; obverse M ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT (Consul Elect for the 2nd and 3rd time), conjoined head of Antony and bust of Octavia right, Antony nearer and wreathed in ivy, Octavia draped; reverse Dionysus standing half left on cista mystica, in his right hand, thyrsus in his left hand, flanked by two interlaced snakes with heads erect, III VIR (triumvir) downward on left, R P C (Reipublicae Constituendae) upward on right; $2700.00 (2295.00)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
SH87932. Gold aureus, RIC II-1 28, BnF I 17, BMCRE II 23, Hunter I 13, Calico I 607, Cohen I -, SRCV I -, Choice aVF, well centered, traces of luster in recesses, weight 6.944 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. Jan - Jun 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left, extending olive branch in right hand, winged caduceus in left hand; $2520.00 (2142.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Following tradition, when young Nero was elevated to princeps juventutis (prince of youth) in 51 A.D., the equestrian order (Roman knights) gave him a silver buckler (a small round shield) and lances. Coins depicting these traditional gifts were issued for Caius and Lucius, when they were designated princeps juventutis in the time of Augustus. Aurei and denarii with the same types were struck for Nero at Rome. Due to the rarity of the type and the lack of S C on the reverse, it was long believed this type was funded by the knights for distribution as gifts to attendees at the event where Nero was given his buckler and lances. In SNR 63 (1984), von Kaenel re-attributed this type to a Thracian mint. A few dozen examples are know and some, according to RPC I, were found in Thrace.
RB88176. Orichalcum sestertius, von Kaenel Thrakien, type A (unlisted dies); RIC I Claudius 108 (R4); BMCRE p. 195 note, pl. 37, 4; BnF II Claudius 288; Cohen I 99; see RPC I p. 311, aVF, dark brown near black patina, minor roughness, weight 26.001 g, maximum diameter 33.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Balkan or Thracian mint, as caesar, 51 - 54 A.D.; obverse NERONI CLAVDIO DRVSO GERMANICO COS DESIG, bare headed and draped bust right; reverse EQVESTER / OR-DO / PRINCIPI / IVVENT in four lines on a buckler (small round shield), lance vertical behind; ex CNG e-sale 424 (11 Jul 2018), lot 434; ex CNG e-sale 174 (10 Oct 2007), lot 204; ex CNG auction 67 (22 Sep 2004), lot 1316; ex Michael Weller Collection; very rare; $1620.00 (1377.00)


Revolt Against Nero, Gaius Iulius Vindex, Governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, c. Late 67 - May 68 A.D.

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Struck by Gaius Iulius Vindex, the Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who rebelled against Nero's tax policy and declared allegiance to Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as the new emperor. Vindex was defeated and killed in battle near Vesontio (modern Besancon), but the military continued to support Galba. On 9 June 68, deserted by the Praetorian Guard, Nero stabbed himself in the throat.
RS88405. Silver denarius, Unpublished, civil war restitution of Augustus, only three examples known to Forum, all share the same obverse die, two reverse dies known, VF, rainbow toning, lamination defects, porosity, scratches, edge split, weight 3.280 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain (Lugdunum?) mint, c. late 67 - May 68 A.D.; obverse [CAESAR], bare head of Augustus right; reverse AVGVSTVS, young bull walking right, head turned facing; found in Spain; $1500.00 (1275.00)


Roman Civil War, Vitellius, c. 69 A.D.

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This coin is M71 in Butcher, K. & M. Pointing, The Metallurgy of Roman Silver Coinage: From the Reform of Nero to the Reform of Trajan (Cambridge, 2015). There is a tiny drill hole on the edge where silver was extracted for testing. This was an important coin in the study, with test results indicating 93.9% silver bullion and Gallic isotope ratios strongly suggesting similarity with other Vitellius coins from Gallia, not coins minted for Galba.
RS86684. Silver denarius, Butcher-Pointing M71 (this coin), RIC I Civil Wars 121, BMCRE I 65, RSC I Galba 363, BnF I 75, Martin 7, EF, toned, tight flan, light corrosion, test drill hole on edge, weight 3.127 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Southern Gaul(?) mint, c. 69 A.D.; obverse clasped hands, FIDES above, EXERCITVVM below; reverse clasped hands, FIDES above, PRAETORIANORVM curving along the edge below; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Helios, auction 4 (Munich, 14 Oct 2009), lot 270; ex Coll. A. Lynn collection; ex Classical Numismatic Group, auction 54 (14 June 2000), lot 1484; ex P. DeVicci collection; rare; $1300.00 (1105.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH82657. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 330, Cohen I 271, BnF I 417, Mac Dowall WCN 163, Hunter I 100, SRCV I -, BMCRE I -, gVF, excellent portrait, fine style, dark green and brown patina, some corrosion, gently smoothed, weight 24.425 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head left with light beard; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, one round and one oblong shield behind, wearing crested helmet, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, Victory offering wreath in Roma's extended right hand, her left hand rests on parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C (senatus consulto) at sides; Numismatica Ars Classica, auction 94 (6 Oct 2016), lot 127; ex Classical Numismatic Group 783132 ($1750); $1100.00 (935.00)


Caligula, 16 Mar 37 - 24 Jan 41 A.D., Nero and Drusus Caesars on Obverse

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This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed. In Suetonius', The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Claudius IX we learn that Caligula ordered his uncle and co-consul Claudius to commission statues of his deceased elder brothers. The statues appear on dupondii, immortalized in a pose recognizable as the Dioscuri. The marble statue in the photo right was found in or near Rome during the fifteenth century, and is now in the British Museum. The pose differs from the image on the coins but restorations include the youths arms and three of the horses legs. Is it one of the two statues commissioned by Claudius? Click the photo to see additional photos and information.Marble Sculpture

RB91358. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC I Gaius 34 (S), BMCRE I Gaius 44, Cohen I Nero et Drusus 1, BnF I Gaius 52, Hunter I Gaius 18, SRCV I -, gVF, centered on a full and heavy flan, green and red-brown patina, scattered light porosity, smoothing and cleaning marks, weight 16.011 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 40 - 41 A.D.; obverse NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus riding right, cloaks flying behind them; reverse C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, legend around large S C; ex CNG e-auction 437 (6 Feb 2019), lot 398; rare; $850.00 (722.50)


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21

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Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
SH89761. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 4, 150; RIC I 30 (C); BMCRE I 48; RSC II 16a; SRCV I 1763, gVF, toned, highest points struck a bit flat, slightly off center, minor edge flaw at 8:00 on reverse, weight 3.701 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 18 - 35 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; $700.00 (595.00)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta

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This type celebrates the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Coins commemorating this event are referred to as "Judaea Capta" issues.
SH89760. Silver denarius, RIC II-1 2; Hendin 1479; BMCRE II 35; RSC II 226; Hunter I 18; SRCV I 2296, aVF/F, nice portrait, tight flan, struck with a worn reverse dies, clear IVDAEA, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.989 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 69 - 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse Jewess seated right, mourning, veiled, supporting chin with left hand, trophy of captured arms behind her, IVDAEA in exergue; $400.00 (340.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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The reverse legend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. Sear
SH89524. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 438, BMCRE I 319, BnF I 73, Mac Dowall WCN 419, Cohen I 146, SRCV I 1958, Hunter I -, F/aF, brown fields with brassy high points, obverse slightly off center, beveled obverse edge (typical for this issue), weight 20.807 g, maximum diameter 35.3 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, globe at the point of the bust; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus from the front left corner, temple front on the right with garland over closed doors within arch, the left side of the temple to the left with long latticed window, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $300.00 (255.00)




  







Catalog current as of Wednesday, May 22, 2019.
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12 Caesars