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Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, 4 B.C. - 39 A.D.
Herod Antipas is best known for his role in the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth. Antipas' father, Herod the Great, designated him to succeed, but the rule of Judaea was at the whim of Augustus. Antipas and his brothers Archelaus and Philip, all raised in Rome, were each given a part of the kingdom. Antipas was given the title Tetrarch and rule of Galilee, Peraea, and Jewish Trans-Jordan. He sponsored grand construction projects at Sepphoris, Betharamphtha, and his new capital Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Antipas divorced Phasaelis, the daughter of King Aretas IV of Nabataea, and married his sister-in-law and niece Herodias. The divorce led to war with Aretas, in which Herod was defeated. John the Baptist condemned the marriage, for which Antipas had him arrested and executed. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was first brought before Pontius Pilate for trial. Pilate handed him over to Antipas, but Antipas sent him back to Pilate's court. In 39 A.D., his nephew Agrippa I accused Antipas of conspiracy against the new emperor Caligula. Caligula sent him into exile in Gaul. Accompanied there by Herodias, he died at an unknown date. All coins of Antipas were minted in Tiberias, the capitol city he founded c. 19 A.D. and named for Tiberius. All his coins are rare and very rare in better than poor condition. They were minted with an inferior alloy that was particularly susceptible to corrosion and wear.
Although he was not always sensitive to Jewish tradition, Antipas' coins carried no images, which would have violated Jewish prescriptions against idolatry. When Pontius Pilate, governor of Judea from 26 AD to 36 AD, caused offense by placing votive shields in the Antonia palace at Jerusalem, Antipas and his brothers successfully petitioned for their removal.JD40717. Bronze full denomination, Hendin 1203; RPC I 4922; Meshorer TJC 79; Meshorer AJC II p. 242, 5; BMC Palestine -; SNG ANS -, VF, well centered, green patina, weight 10.628 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 0o, Tiberias mint, 29 - 30 A.D.; obverse HPW∆OY TETPAPXOY (of Herod the Tetrach), palm frond upright with slight curves, L - ΛΓ (year 33) across fields; reverse TIBE/PIAC (Tiberias) in two lines, surrounded by wreath; very rare; SOLD
POSSIBLE CRUCIFIXION YEAR COIN. The Bible does not tell the date of the Crucifixion, but based on Biblical clues, the Jewish calendar and astronomical evidence many scholars believe it was Friday, April 3, 33 A.D. John the Baptist began his ministry in 28 or 29 A.D. and the Gospel of John points to three separate Passovers during Jesus' ministry. Jesus was executed on the orders of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judaea from 26 to 36 A.D. This limits the years to between 30 and 36 A.D. John P. Meier's, A Marginal Jew, cites 7 April 30 A.D., 3 April 33 A.D., and 30 March 36 A.D. as astronomically possible Friday Nisan 14 dates during this period. Isaac Newton, using the crescent of the moon, determined the year was 34 A.D. but John Pratt argued that Newton made a minor computation error and 33 A.D. was the accurate answer using Newton's method. Using similar computations, in 1990 astronomer Bradley Schaefer arrived at Friday, April 3, 33 A.D. A third method, using a completely different astronomical approach (consistent with Apostle Peter's reference to a "moon of blood" in Acts 2:20) based on a lunar Crucifixion darkness and eclipse model arrives at the same date, Friday, April 3, 33 A.D.SH06150. Bronze half denomination, Meshorer TJC 88a; Hendin 1211 var. (normal Z); RPC I 4931 var. (same); BMC Palestine p. 229, 6 var. (same), aVF, weight 6.60 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Tiberias mint, 32 - 33 A.D.; obverse HPW∆OY TETPAPXOY (of Herod the Tetrach), palm frond upright with slight curves, L ΛZ (year 37, Z is upside-down) across fields; reverse TIBE/PIAC (Tiberias), inscription in two lines, surrounded by wreath; artificial highlighting red patina (can easily be removed) over natural green patina; extremely rare; SOLD
Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, 4 B.C. - 39 A.D., In the Name of Caligula
Antipas' fall from power was due to Caligula and to his own nephew Agrippa, brother of Herodias. When Agrippa fell into debt during the reign of Tiberius despite his connections with the imperial family, Herodias persuaded Antipas to provide for him, but the two men quarreled. After Agrippa was heard expressing to his friend Caligula his eagerness for Tiberius to die and leave room for Caligula to succeed him, he was imprisoned. When Caligula finally became emperor in 37 A.D., he not only released his friend but granted him rule of Philip's former tetrarchy (slightly extended), with the title of king. Josephus relates that Herodias, jealous at Agrippa's success, persuaded Antipas to ask Caligula for the title of king for himself. However, Agrippa simultaneously presented the emperor with a list of charges against the tetrarch: allegedly, he had conspired against Tiberius with Sejanus (executed in 31 A.D.) and was now plotting against Caligula with Artabanus. As evidence, Agrippa noted that Antipas had a stockpile of weaponry sufficient for 70,000 men. Hearing Antipas' admission to this last charge, Caligula decided to credit the allegations of conspiracy. In the summer of 39 A.D., Antipas' money and territory were turned over to Agrippa, and Antipas was exiled. The place of his exile is given by Josephus' Antiquities as "Lugdunum" in Gaul. Caligula offered to allow Herodias, as Agrippa's sister, to retain her property. However, she chose instead to join her husband in exile. Antipas died in exile. The 3rd-century historian Cassius Dio seems to imply that Caligula had him killed, but this is usually treated with skepticism by modern historians.SH08651. Bronze half denomination, Hendin 1216; Meshorer TJC 92; RPC I 4935; BMC Palestine p. 230, 10; SNG ANS 231, gF, weight 5.69 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, Tiberias mint, 39 A.D.; obverse HPΩ∆HC TETPAPXHC (of Herod the Tetrach), palm frond upright with slight curve, L - MΓ (year 43) across fields, dot border; reverse ΓAIΩ / KAICA / ΓEPMA/NIKΩ (Gaius CaesarGermanicus = Caligula) in four lines, surrounded by wreath within a dot border; very rare; SOLD
Burnett, A., M. Amandry & P. RipollŤs. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (London, 1992 & supplements).
Fontanille, J. Menorah Coin Project, website: http://menorahcoinproject.org/
Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Hill, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Palestine. (London, 1914). BMC Palestine
Meshorer, Y. Ancient Jewish Coinage. (New York, 1982).
Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).
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