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Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774. Dates of operation: c. 274 - 326 A.D. Mintmarks: T.
Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
This type with a radiatehead is unlisted in RIC VII but p. 379, 135, notes that Alföldi recorded the radiatehead in RIN 1921, p. 118; citing a specimen in the Trau Collection with a PT mintmark (first officina), and another in the Gerin Collection with a TT mintmark (third officina). The note goes on to say the radiatebusttype should be expected since the other rulers have parallel bust types in the issue, one of which is radiate. We know of eight total specimens of this type, but the Trau Collection coin is the only other first officina example known to Forum.RL84331. Billoncentenionalis, Alföldi RIN 1921, p. 118 (citing the Trau collection); RIC VII Ticinum 134 var. (laureate head, radiatehead noted on p. 379), Choice EF, excellent bold and well-centered strike, attractive green patina, a few light marks, weight 2.947 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 320 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOB CAES, radiatehead right; reverse DOMINORVM NOSTRORVM CAESS, VOT * V in two lines, the star in center, all within wreath tied at the bottom, PT in exergue; extremely rare; $600.00 SALE PRICE $540.00
Numerian, February or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D.
When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.RB71623. Billonantoninianus, Hunter IV 8 (also 5th officina, unbroken rev. leg.), RIC V, part 2, 366; Venèra IV 418 (24 ex.); Pink VI-2 p. 24; SRCV III 12219; Cohen VI 76, Choice EF, excellent centering, much silvering, some porosity, weight 3.529 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, as caesar, Nov/Dec 282 - Feb/Mar 283 A.D.; obverseM AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reversePRINCIPI IVVENTVT (to the Prince of Youth), Numerian walking left, baton in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, VXXI in exergue; $270.00 SALE PRICE $243.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of GothicusMaximus and GermanicusMaximus.RA76279. Silveredantoninianus, Pink VI-1, p. 63; RIC, part 2, V 376 (S) var. (cuirass); Cohen VI 283 var. (same); Hunter IV 131 var. (same, and obv legend); SRCV III 11984 (same), Choice aEF, some mint luster, most silvering remains, fantastic heroic bust, light corrosion, weight 3.341 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; obverseVIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiatebust left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for balteus over right shoulder and rectangular Aegisshield with square corner in on left shoulder; reverse HERCVLI PACIF (to Hercules the pacifier), Hercules standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and Nemean Lion skin in left, VXXT in exergue; very rare; $235.00 SALE PRICE $212.00
Carus, Early September 282 - c. July or August 283 A.D.
An interesting reverse inscribed "The Peace of the Army" and displaying the goddess Pax holding a military standard. The message was perhaps analogous to the renaming of the U.S. Department of War to the Department of Defense in 1949.RB71580. Billonantoninianus, Cohen VI 56; Pink VI-2, p. 26; RIC V 75 var. (no drapery); Hunter III 14 var. (slight drapery); SRCV III 12175 var. (obv.legend), Choice aEF, near full silvering, excellent centering and strike, unusual bust, a few small encrustations, very light corrosion, weight 3.312 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, Oct - Dec 282; obverse IMP CARVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverse PAX EXERCITI, Pax standing slightly left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, standard vertical behind in left hand, PXXI in exergue; rarebust variant; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00
Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
On 8 October 314, at the Battle of Cibalae, Constantine defeated Licinius near ColoniaAurelia Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius was forced to flee to Sirmium and lost all of the Balkans except for Thrace. The two Augusti initiated peace negotiations, but they failed and they would not make peace until 1 March 317.RL76327. Billonfollis, Unlisted bust variety of a very raretype; RIC VII Ticinum 4 (R4) var. (head), SRCV IV 15258 var. (same), Cohen VII 139, Hunter V -, VF, well centered, light contact marks and corrosion, weight 3.147 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from front; reverseMARTI CONSERVATORI, Mars standing right, helmeted, in military dress, reversed spear in right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, PT in exergue; $155.00 SALE PRICE $140.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D., EQVITI Series II of Ticinum, Q, SXXI
Ticinum mint EQVITI series II - click EQVITI to read the NumisWiki article, Coins of Probus with Coded Markings of EQVITI Embedded in the mint mark. The letter Q in the reversefield is the second letter of the codewordEQVITI. The letter S in the exergue indicates this coin was struck by the second officina (mint workshop). The letters of the word EQVITI are coded in the mint marks of coins from all the officinae of the mint, with the specific letters of the codeword assigned to each officina in order corresponding with their officina numbers. This codeword probably refers to cavalry. It may be AEQVITI truncated because there were only six officinae in operation.RA77126. Billonantoninianus, Cohen VI 488 (also with helmet); RIC V, part 2, 492 (R); Pink VI-1, p. 67/9; Hunter IV -, SRCV III -, Choice gVF, well centered and struck, much silvering, unusual obverselegend, weight 3.366 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; obverseVIRTVS PROBI INVICTI AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassedbust left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, shield on left arm; reversePROVIDENT AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing left holding globe in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, Q in left field, SXXI in exergue; rare; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
Tacitus, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
Mars holds both the implements of war and the olive branch of peace. "Peace through strength" is an ancient phrase and concept implying that strength of arms is a necessary component of peace. The phrase has famously been used by many leaders from Roman Emperor Hadrian in the first century A.D., to Ronald Reagan in the 1980s.RA84987. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 3408 (96 spec.), RIC V 145, BnF XII 1681, La Venèra 1565 - 1604, Gloucester 727, Maravielle 785, Hamburger Kunsthalle 1573, Choice VF, silvering, well centered, some light corrosion, weight 4.335 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, issue 2, early ? June 276; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseMARTI PACIF (to Mars the peacemaker), Mars advancing left, wearing crested helmet and military dress, olive branch raised in right hand, transverse spear and oval shield in left hand, S in exergue; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
The T in the mintmark serves both as the I in a mark of value (XXI = 20 parts bronze to 1 part silver, about 4.5% silver) and to indicate the mint (T = Ticinum).RA76988. Billonantoninianus, Hunter IV 132; RIC V, part 2, 387; Cohen VI 310; Pink VI-1 p. 63-64/4; cf. SRCV III 11988 (obv. leg, bust), gVF, some silvering, nice portrait, nice green patina, tight flan, weight 3.186 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 4, 278 A.D.; obverse IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI CONSERVAT (to Jupiter the protector), Probus (on left) standing right, wearing military garb, eagle-tipped scepter in left hand, receiving with right hand globe form Jupiter, Jupiter (on right) standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulders, globe in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, VXXT in exergue; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00
Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.
Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774.RA70549. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 1550, BnF XII 634, Göbl MIR 78Ab3, RIC V 152, Venèra 5548 - 5609, Hunter IV 63, Cohen VI 183, SRCV III 11587, Choice gVF, perfect centering, some silvering, light scratches, a few reverselegend letters unstruck (filled die), weight 4.655 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4th emission, late 274 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reversePROVIDEN DEOR (the foresight of the gods), Fides on left holding standard in each hand, facing Sol, standing left, raising his right hand commanding the sun to rise and holding globe in left hand, TXXT in exergue; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.; EQVITI Series II of Ticinum, E, PXXI
Ticinum mint EQVITI series II - click "EQVITI" to read the NumisWiki article, "Coins of Probus with Coded Markings of EQVITI Embedded in the mint mark." The letter "E" in the reversefield is the first letter of the codewordEQVITI. The letter "P" in the exergue indicates this coin was struck by the first officina (mint workshop). The letters of the word EQVITI are coded in the mint marks of coins from all the officinae of the mint, with the specific letters of the codeword assigned to each officina in order corresponding with their officina numbers. This codeword probably refers to cavalry. It may be AEQVITI truncated because there were only six officinae in operation. RA83456. Billonantoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 480; Pink VI/1 p. 67; Cohen VI 121; SRCV III 11965 var., Choice VF, full circles strike, traces of silvering, weight 4.463 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C PROBVS AVG, radiate and mantled bust left, holding an eagle-tipped scepter; reverseCONCORD MILIT (harmony with the soldiers), Concordia standing slightly, head left, flanked by two standards, one in each hand, E left, PXXI in exergue; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00