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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis and Decline| ▸ |Valerian II||View Options:  |  |  |   

Valerian II, Caesar, Early 256 - 258 A.D.

Publius Licinius Cornelius Valerianus (Valerian II) was the son of Gallienus and Salonina, Grandson of Valerian I and Mariniana, and was raised to the rank of Caesar upon his father's accession. He died two years later.


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When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.
RA63685. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1694b, RIC V-1 49, RSC IV 67, SRCV III 10735, gVF, well centered on a broad flan, weight 4.431 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, Samosata (Adiyman Province. Turkey) mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Prince of Youth), Valerian standing facing, crowning trophy of captured arms to left with wreath in his right, spear in his left, shield on ground behind; scarce; SOLD


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The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.
RA60611. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 907e, SRCV III 10731, RIC V-1 3, RSC IV 26, VF, toned, weight 3.202 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 1st emission, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse IOVI CRESCENTI (to the thriving/growing Jove), child Jupiter riding right on goat, looking back, raising right hand; SOLD


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When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.
RA81207. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1694b, RIC V-1 49, RSC IV 67, SRCV III 10735, Choice gVF, weight 3.435 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, Syrian (Samosata?) mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Prince of Youth), Valerian, shield on ground and spear in left, crowning trophy of captured arms with right; scarce; SOLD


Valerian II, Caesar, Early 256 - 258 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

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Athena, in addition to being the Greek goddess of Wisdom, is goddess of many things, among them law and justice. In Aeschylus’ tragedy "The Eumenides." Orestes is pursued to Athens by the vengeful Erinyes for the murder of his mother, Clytemnestra. Athena intervenes and sets up a jury of twelve Athenians to judge Orestes. Athena herself presides over the trial, instructing her citizens to watch and learn how a trial should be conducted. Apollo speaks on behalf of Orestes, while the Erinyes act as advocates for the dead Clytemnestra. The vote is a tie, but Athena persuades the Erinyes to accept her own decision in favor of Orestes as the casting vote.
RP88905. Bronze 5 assaria, SNG Pfalz 885; SNG Cop 434; BMC Lycia p. 163, 127; SNG BnF -; SNGvA -; SNG Righetti -; SNG Hunterian -; Lindgren -; c/m: Howgego 805 (169 pcs), VF, porosity, a little off center, parts of legends weakly struck, weight 17.787 g, maximum diameter 29.1 mm, die axis 45o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, joint reign, Aug 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse KAI CEB ΠOY ΛIK KOP OV AΛEPIANON, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, eagle facing below bust with head right and wings open; countermark on right: E (5 assaria) in 7.5mm round punch obliterating IA (prior mark of value); reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPΩN, Athena standing facing, head left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, dropping pebble (vote) with right hand into amphora to left (obliterated by counter-marking), palm frond in right hand; only two sales recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; rare; SOLD


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The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.
RA87831. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 907e, SRCV III 10731, RIC V-1 3, RSC IV 26, Choice VF, some luster, well centered, radiating flow lines, light marks, strike a little weak, edge cracks, weight 3.315 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 1st emission, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse IOVI CRESCENTI (to the thriving/growing Jove), child Jupiter riding right on goat, looking back, raising right hand; SOLD


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In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
RA10858. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1597d, SRCV III 10739 (eastern field mint), RIC V-1 51, RSC IV 84, gVF, excellent portrait, full circle strike on both obverse and reverse, weight 3.665 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch or military mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverse P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS (to the Prince of Youth), Prince standing left, baton in right, transverse spear in left; SOLD


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Samosata was an ancient city on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly constructed Atatürk Dam. The founder of the city was Sames, a Satrap of Commagene who made it his capital. The city was sometimes called Antiochia in Commagene and served as the capital for the Hellenistic Kingdom of Commagene from c. 160 BC until it was surrendered to Rome in 72. A civil metropolis from the days of Emperor Hadrian, Samosata was the home of the Legio VI Ferrata and later Legio XVI Flavia Firma, and the terminus of several military roads. Seven Christian martyrs were crucified in 297 in Samosata for refusing to perform a pagan rite in celebration of the victory of Maximian over the Sassanids. It was at Samosata that Julian II had ships made in his expedition against Sapor, and it was a natural crossing-place in the struggle between Heraclius and Chosroes in the 7th century.
RA23009. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1694b, RIC V-1 49, RSC IV 67, SRCV III 10735, VF, weight 3.125 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Syrian mint, obverse VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Prince of Youth), Valerian, shield on ground and spear in left, crowning trophy of captured arms with right; scarce; SOLD


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The ruins of Antioch on the Orontes lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity," for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.6th Century Antioch
RA57010. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1604d, RIC V-1 54, RSC IV 97, SRCV III 10742, F, toned, grainy, weight 2.835 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverse P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES, radiate draped bust right; reverse VICTORIA PART (victories over the Parthians), Victory on left standing right, presenting wreath to Prince, holding globe in right and spear vertical behind in left; nice portrait; scarce; SOLD


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In 256 A.D., the cities in the Roman Empire begin to build walls as the defense of the frontiers collapsed. The Goths invaded Asia Minor, Dacia was lost, and they appeared at the walls of Thessalonica. The Franks crossed the Rhine. The Alamanni penetrated to Milan. In Africa, the Berbers massacred Roman colonists. King Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria and plundered Antioch, Zeugma, and Dura-Europos.
RA36489. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1694b, RIC V-1 49, RSC IV 67, SRCV III 10735, choice VF, roughness, weight 4.198 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 255 - 257 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Prince of Youth), Valerian holding shield on ground and spear, crowning trophy of captured arms, • in center; nicely centered, ex Amphora Coins (David Hendin); scarce; SOLD


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Valerian II was son of Gallienus and Salonina, Grandson of Valerian I and Mariniana. He was raised to the rank of Caesar upon his father's accession but died only two years later.
RA08630. Bronze antoninianus, Göbl MIR 261k, SRCV III 10608, RIC V-1 24, RSC IV 13, VF, weight 2.60 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, posthumous, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse DIVO CAES VALERIANO, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse CONSECRATIO, altar-enclosure with double panelled door, flames rising from top; scarce; SOLD




  




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|OBVERSE |LEGENDS

CPLVALERIANVSCAES
CORLICVALERIANVSCAES
CORVALERIANVSCAESAR
DIVOCAESVALERIANO
DIVOCAESARVALERIANO
DIVOCAESARIVALERIANO
DIVOVALERIANOCAES
LICVALERIANVSCAES
PCLVALERIANVSCAES
PCLVALERIANVSNC
PCLVALERIANVSNOBC
PCLVALERIANVSNOBCAES
PLICCORVALERIANVSCAES
PLICVALERIANVSCAES
VALERIANVSCAES
VALERIANVSNOBILCAES


REFERENCES|

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Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Bourdel, B. Les Antoniniens emis sous le regne conjoint des empereurs Valerien et Gallien, Mariniane, Salonine, Valerien II, Salonin (253-260 Apr. J.-C.). (2017).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. (London, 1988).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham, & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Friday, December 13, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Valerian II