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Priapus, also called Mutinus Titinus, had a temple in Rome and was especially worshiped by young married women. His use by Quintus Titius is one of the usual found on Republican coinage.RR88386. Silver denarius, Crawford 341/1, Sydenham 691, RSC ITitia 1, BMCRR I Rome 2220, RBW Collection 1274, SRCV I 238, VF, attractive dark toning, small thick flan cutting off Pegasus' head, obverse die wear, weight 3.780 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 90 B.C.; obversehead of Priapus (Mutinus Titinus) right, wearing winged diadem, pointed beard, curly lock of hair down neck; reversePegasus springing right from a base or tablet inscribed Q•TITI; $140.00 (€119.00)
Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso L.f. Frugi, 90 B.C.
In 90 B.C., Rome barely managed to stave off total defeat in the Social War. The Italians were denied citizenship and, despite making up over half the Roman army, were denied a fair share of the booty and lands. They rebelled and raised an army of 100,000 battle-hardened soldiers. After Roman victories and citizenship concessions, the war was nearly over by 88 B.C.RR88359. Silver denarius, BMCRR I Rome 2023 var. (also hammer and flute, but R on obverse, V on reverse); Sydenham 669a; Crawford 340/1; RSC ICalpurnia 11; SRCV I 235, gF, toned, light marks, small edge splits, weight 3.751 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 90 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, hair falling in long ringlets, hammer (control symbol) behind, S (control letter) below chin, dot border; reverse naked horseman galloping right, holding palm frond, head bare, flute (control symbol) above, L PISO FRVGI over P (control letter) below; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, Marcus Vargunteius, c. 130 B.C.
The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld.RR88365. Silver denarius, Crawford 257/1, Sydenham 507, RSC I Vargunteius 1, BMCRR I Rome 1068, RBW Collection 1048, SRCV I 133, aVF, light tone, light and scratches marks, minor flan wave, slightest porosity, weight 3.700 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 15o, Rome mint, c. 130 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing single drop earring and necklace, hair in three locks, M VARG (VAR ligate) behind, X (XVI ligature, mark of value=16 asses) below chin; reverseJupiter in a slow quadriga right, nude to the waist, upright branch in right hand, thunderbolt and reins in left hand, ROMA in exergue; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, BAL Series, 169 - 158 B.C.
In 168 B.C., Antiochus IV ordered the Jews to worship Greek gods. The Temple in Jerusalem was seized and dedicated to Zeus. The Jews revolted and after three years of fighting, Judah Maccabee defeated the Seleukid army. Hanukkah, the Festival of Lights, commemorates the rededication of the Temple in 165 B.C. According to the Talmud, there was only enough consecrated olive oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days, enough time to prepare and consecrate fresh oil. John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of Judah Maccabee, the hero of the Hanukkah story. John Hyrcanus was the first Jewish ruler to issue coins in his own name.RR88350. Bronze triens, Crawford 179/3, Sydenham 354b, BMCRR 614, RBW Collection 759, SRCV I 974, F, well centered, marks, porosity, some corrosion, edge crack, weight 13.464 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 180o, central Italy mint, 169 - 158 B.C.; obversehead of Minerva right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, four pellets above; reverse prow of galley right, BAL (AL ligate) above, four pellets on right, ROMA below; scarce; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, M. Marcius Mn.f., 134 B.C.
The First Servile War, 135 - 132 B.C., was an unsuccessful slave rebellion against the Roman Republic. The war was prompted by slave revolts in Enna on the island of Sicily. It was led by Eunus, a former slave claiming to be a prophet, and Cleon, a Cilician (from present-day Turkey) who became Eunus's military commander. After some minor battles won by the slaves, a larger Roman army arrived in Sicily and defeated the rebels.RR88355. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 245/3, Sydenham 501a, BMCRR I Rome 1017, RBW Collection 1011, SRCV I 1151, aF, dark green patina, corrosion, edge crack, weight 5.255 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 134 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion's scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow of galley right, M MARCI / MN F (MAR and MNF ligate) in two lines above, three pellets before, ROMA in exergue; ex Rudnik Numismatics, with an old collector tag dated 30 November 1932, with the cost noted as $.25; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, Gaius Egnatuleius C.f., 97 B.C.
This reverse refers to Marius' victories over the Teutones and Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 B.C. and the Cimbri at Vercellae in 101 B.C. Crawford believes this issue financed settlement of Marius' veterans, partly in Cisalpine Gaul. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. CrawfordRR88382. Silver quinarius, Crawford 333/1, Sydenham 588, RSC IEgnatuleia 1, BMCRR I Rome 1076, Russo RBW 1193, SRCV I 213, VF, attractive light toning, reverse a little off center, small edge splits, weight 1.664 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 97 B.C.; obverse C·EGNATVLEI·C·F (NAT and VL ligate) downward behind, laureate head of Apollo right, Q (mark of value) below; reverseVictory standing left inscribing shield attached to trophy, trophy topped with a helmet ornamented with bull horns, carnyx (Gallic war trumpet) at base of trophy, Q (mark of value) in center, ROMA in exergue; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, C. Coelius Caldus, c. 104 B.C.
In 104 B.C., the Republic was in a state of emergency. The Cimbri had just dealt Rome its most severe defeat since Cannae; two armies were destroyed. Italy was nearly defenseless. The consul Gaius Marius asked King Nicomedes III of Bithynia to provide troops. Nicomedes III turned down the request declaring, "All those eligible for military service in my kingdom have been robbed by the Roman tax-farmers and sold into slavery." In response, about 800 Italian slaves in Sicily were freed. Non-Italians slaves incorrectly believed they had also been freed. When ordered back to servitude, these slaves amassed an army 2,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. The revolt, the Second Servile War, lasted until 100 B.C., caused famine in Rome, and was defeated only after great effort. It was the second of a series of three slave revolts in the Roman Republic.RR88362. Silver denarius, BMCRR I Rome 1463 var. (control: •A), RSC ICoelia 3, Crawford 318/1b, Sydenham 582a, SRCV I 196 var. (noted), Nice F, light toning, light marks and scratches, weight 3.738 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, c. 104 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing triple drop earring and necklace; reverseVictory in a biga left, holding reins in both hands, CALD below horses, •A• (control mark) in exergue; $110.00 (€93.50)
Roman Republic, C. Poblicius Malleolus, A. Postumius Albinus & L. Caecilius Metellus, 96 B.C.
C. Poblicius Malleolus, A. Postumius Albinus, and L. Caecilius Metellus, were moneyers during 96 B.C., magistrates responsible for the production of the Roman coinage. Magistrates were not simple mint workers, they were officials who controlled the process, including the design on the coins themselves. During the Roman Republic, moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for casting [and] striking bronze, silver, [and] gold [coins]."RR88383. Silver denarius, Crawford 335/1a, BMCRR II Italy 724, RSC ICaecilia 46a, RBW Collection 1200, Sydenham 611, SRCV 220 (refs. for no control symbol), VF, dark toning, banker's marks, scratches, crowded flan, weight 3.838 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 96 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, hair in ringlets, A·ALB·S·F upward before, L·METEL downward behind, no control symbol; reverseRoma seated left on a pile of shields, spear vertical in right hand, crowned with wreath by Victory standing left behind her, C·MALL (AL ligate) downward on left, ROMA in exergue; ex FORVM (2002); $110.00 (€93.50)
Roman Republic, OPEI (Q. Opeimius?), 169 - 157 B.C.
In Roman mythology, Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates, doors, doorways, and of beginnings and endings. Janus is believed to be one of the few major deities in Roman mythology that does not have a Greek origin or counterpart. RR88348. Copper as, Crawford 190/1, Sydenham 363, BMCRRRome 598, RBW Collection 811, SRCV I 701, F, bumps and marks, obverse off center, small edge splits/cracks, weight 26.339 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 169 - 157 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, I (mark of value) above, linear border; reverse galley prow right, OPEI above, I (mark of value) right, ROMA below, linear border; $100.00 (€85.00)
Roman Republic, Q. Marcius, C. Fabius & L. Roscius, c. 118 - 117 B.C.
In 118 B.C., the Second Dalmatian War ended with victory for Rome. Lucius Caecilius Metellus assumed the surname Delmaticus.RR88373. Silver denarius, Crawford 283/1b, Sydenham 541a, RSC IMarcia 17, RSC IFabia 13, BMCRR I Italy 479, RBW Collection 1112, SRCV 159 var. (noted), F, toned, a little rough, reverse slightly off center, weight 3.564 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, c. 118 - 117 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing single drop earring and necklace, hair in three locks, X (mark of value) behind; reverseVictory in quadriga right, raising wreath in extended right hand, reins in left hand, ROMA below, C•F•L•R•Q•M in exergue; $100.00 (€85.00)