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The features of this coin have been recut (tooled) to make them appear less worn.RB91536. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 16 (R), Woodward Didius, p. 79; BMCRE V 28, Hunter III 10, Banti 6, Cohen III 17, SRCV II 6077, TOOLED, weight 12.191 g, maximum diameter 26.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, late May - 2 Jun 193 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse RECTOR ORBIS (Master of the World), Didius Julianus standing slightly left, head left, togate, globe in extended right hand, scroll in left hand at side, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, TOOLED, AS IS, NO RETURNS; rare; $145.00 (€127.60)
Persian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Xerxes I - Darius II, c. 485 - 420 B.C.
After the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah, the Jews were taken into the seventy-year Babylonian captivity. When ancient Persia took control of Babylon, Haman, the royal vizier, convinced King Ahasuerus to destroy all the Jews. Esther, Ahasuerus' queen and, unknown to him, a Jew, interceded on behalf of her people. By law the King could not rescind the order to slaughter the Jews, so he issued a second decree that permitted the Jews to defend themselves with armed force. The King replaced Haman with Mordecai, a palace official, cousin and foster parent of Esther. The Jews defeated Haman, killing his ten sons that were leading the attacks, and then hanged Haman. The day after the battle was designated as a day of feasting and rejoicing. Scholars identify King Ahasuerus as the historical king Xerxes I, 485 - 465 B.C. Xerxes is the Greek version of his name but the Babylonians knew him as Khshayarsha. The Hebrew name Ahasuerus, appears to be derived from Khshayarsha, with the letter A added at the beginning.MA93718. Silver siglos, Carradice type IIIb (early); Carradice NC 1998 pl. 7, 155 ff.; Rosen 673; SGCV II 4682; Winzer 1.11; Sunrise 25, F, toned, well centered, etched surfaces, punch on obverse, weight 5.274 g, maximum diameter 14.8 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 485 - 420 B.C.; obverse Kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, transverse spear downward in right hand, bow in extended left hand, bearded, crowned; reverse irregular rectangular punch; $72.36 (€63.68)
Amphipolis, Macedonia, c. 148 - 31 B.C.
Excavations of Roman Amphipolis have revealed traces of all the impressive architecture one would expect from a thriving Roman city. A bridge, gymnasium, public and private monuments, sanctuaries, and cemeteries all attest to the city's prosperity. From the early Christian period (after 500 CE) there are traces of four basilicas, a large rectangular building which may have been a bishop's residence, and a church. -- Ancient History EncyclopediaGB86505. Bronze chalkous, SNG Cop 78 (same dies); SNG ANS 140 (same dies); Lindgren II 952 (same dies); BMC Macedonia p. 51, 65; HGC 3.1 -, VF, well centered, light corrosion and encrustations, edge splits, weight 4.368 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, c. 148 - 32/31 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet; reverse AMΦIΠOΛEITΩN, eagle standing slightly left on thunderbolt, wings partly open, head turned back right; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; $65.00 (€57.20)
Hostilian, Summer - November 251 A.D.
When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.RB91612. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 215, Cohen V 31, Hunter III 8, SRCV III 9573, TOOLED, weight 12.411 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, as caesar, 250 - early 251 A.D.; obverse C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, bare headed and draped bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS (to the Prince of Youth), Apollo seated left, extending laurel branch in right hand, resting left elbow on lyre, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, TOOLED, AS IS, NO RETURNS; rare; $26.00 (€22.88)
Dyrrhachion, Illyria, Greece, Roman Protectorate, c. 229 - 30 B.C.
This type circulated alongside, and presumably at parity with, Roman Republican denarii. BMC calls the figure on the right side of the obverse a statue. Ceka identifies it as a female. The figure can be identified as Harpokrates by the a hem-hem crown and right index finger up to the lips.MA93701. Silver drachm, Ceka 325 corr., BMC Thessaly p. 71, 94, weight 2.463 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, Dyrrhachium (Durrës, Albania) mint, obverse MENIΣKOΣ, cow right, head turned back toward suckling calf left; on right: Harpokrates standing facing wearing hemhem crown, finger to lips; reverse ∆YP − ΛY−KIΣ−KOY, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inward; $21.74 (€19.13)
Constantius Gallus, Caesar, 28 September 351 - Winter 354 A.D.
In 351, Constantius Gallus built a new church in honor of Saint Babylas at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, and transferred the remains of the bishop to it to neutralize the pagan effects of the nearby temple of Apollo. In 362, Julian consulted the oracle of Apollo at the temple in Daphne, but received no answer, and was told that it was because of the proximity of the saint. He had the sarcophagus of the martyr exhumed and removed. A few days later, on October 22, a mysterious fire broke out consuming the roof of the temple and the statue of the god, copied from Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia. Julian, suspecting angry Christians, closed the cathedral of Antioch and ordered an investigation. Ammianus Marcellinus reports "a frivolous rumor" laid blame on candles lit by a worshipper late the previous night (XXII, 13). John Chrysostom claimed a bolt of lightning set the temple on fire. The remains of Babylas were reinterred in a church dedicated to him on the other side of the River Orontes.RL88596. Billon reduced maiorina, RIC VIII Sirmium 49, LRBC II 1604, SRCV V 19015, Cohen VIII 14, Hunter V -, aVF, dark patina, old cut across obverse, tight flan, edge a bit ragged, weight 1.91 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left spearing fallen bare-headed horseman, horseman extends arm toward soldier, shield at feet, BSIRM in exergue; $16.00 (€14.08)
Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony, Wife of Nero Drusus, Mother of Claudius, Grandmother of Caligula
Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives. All her coinage was issued early in the reign of Claudius. She died around 37 A.D., possibly as a result of forced suicide ordered by Caligula.RB91827. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC I Claudius 92, BMCRE I Claudius 166, Cohen I 6, BnF II Claudius 143, SRCV I 1902, weight 11.960 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, struck under Claudius, c. 41 - 50 A.D.; obverse ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait; reverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius standing left, veiled and togate, simpulum in right, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $14.50 (€12.76)
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Constantia is the personification of consistency. On Roman coinage, she is found only on coins struck under Claudius. A typical example of the fabricated propaganda on Roman coinage, consistency was a characteristic that Claudius lacked. His biographer Suctonius said of him, "In the faculties of reflection and discernment, his mind was remarkably variable and contrasted, he being sometimes circumspect and sagacious; at others inconsiderate and hasty, often frivolous and as though he were out of his wits." On the other hand, BMC notes, that Constantia personifies courage, endurance and resolution in civil life - the quality that enabled Claudius to bear the trials of his early years. RB91824. Copper as, RIC I 111, BMCRE I 199, BnF II 226, Cohen I 14, SRCV I 1857, weight 7.333 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 50 - 54 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left; reverse CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI (consistency of the emperor), Constantia standing left, in helmet and chiton, raising right hand, spear vertical behind in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $10.00 (€8.80)
Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
In 373, Valens converted to Arianism and ordered the persecution of orthodox Christians.RL88742. Bronze centenionalis, cf. SRCV V 19752, Cohen VIII 11, VF, interesting double strike, dark green patina, weight 2.211 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor walking right, dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left, ∆ right, [...]TES[...] in exergue; $6.50 (€5.72)
Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.
Agrippa was son of Aristobulus and Bernice, a grandson of Herod the Great. He spent his boyhood at the imperial court in Rome. His friend Caligula bestowed former territories of Philip and Herod Antipas. Claudius bestowed Judaea. He had James, the brother of John, executed (Acts 12:1-2) and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:3-5).JD89118. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1244, Meshorer TJC 120, RPC I 4981, SNG ANS 252, Sofaer 153, F, dark patina, corrosion, off center, weight 2.534 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AΓPIΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella-like canopy with fringes; reverse three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L - ς (year 6); $6.50 (€5.72)