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Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II of Macedonia, 359 - 336 B.C.
Philip II became the ruler of all Greece when he defeated the Athenians at the Battle of Chaeroneia in 338 B.C. Philip personally selected the design of his coins. His horse, on the reverse of this coin, won a race in the Olympic Games in 356 B.C., the year his son Alexander the Great was born.SH84347. Silver tetradrachm, Le Rider 248 (D116/R428); SNG ANS 504; SNG Cop 552; SNG Berry 116, gVF, superb style, bold high relief, well centered on a tight flan, rose toning, weight 14.422 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 180o, Macedonia, Pella mint, c. 340 - 328 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ΦIΛIΠΠOY, naked youth on horse pacing right, holding palm frond, bunch of grapes on vine with leaves below; ex Wolfshead Gallery (Ridgewood, NJ); SOLD
England, Edward III, 1327 - 1377
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most efficient military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in the evolution of the English parliament, the ravages of the Black Death and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. He remained on the throne for 50 years.UK77522. Silver groat, Lawrence Edward III 11/12; North 1249; SCBC 1616, gVF, toned, scratches to left of portrait under tone, weight 4.533 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 325o, London mint, Treaty period, 1361 - 1369; obverse + EDWARD DEI G REX AnGL DnS HIB Z AQT (Edward by the Grace of God King of England, France, Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine), crowned facing bust, within tressure of arches, with trefoils in spandrels; reverse + POSVI DEVm A DIVTOR Em mEV (I have made God my helper), CIVITAS LONDON (City of London), long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle; ex CNG e-auction 249 (9 Feb 2011) lot 457 (realized $700 plus fees); ex Spink auction 194 (Prof. Colin Rochester Collection, 26 Mar 2008), lot 502 ; SOLD
England, Henry VIII, 1509 - 1547
Henry VIII was the first English king of Ireland, oversaw the legal union of England and Wales, and continued the nominal claim to France. Besides his six marriages, he is known for his separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Despite converting money formerly paid to Rome into royal revenue, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance and numerous costly wars. Henry applied theory of the divine right of kings to England. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quash dissent, and the accused were often executed without a formal trial. In his prime, Henry was considered attractive, educated, accomplished, and charismatic. As he aged, he became severely obese, his health suffered, and he became lustful, egotistical, and harsh.UK77523. Silver groat, North 1797, SCBC 2337A, rose mint mark, VF, strong portrait, weight 2.625 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, London mint, second coinage, 1526 - 1544; obverse hENRIC VIII DI GRA REX AGL Z FRANC (Henry VIII by the Grace of God King of England and France), crowned bust right; reverse POSVI DEV' AVDIVTORE' MEV (I have made God my helper), royal arms (passant lions and fleurs-de-lis) over long cross fourchée; ex Wolfshead Gallery (2011); SOLD
England, Henry VI, 1422 - 1461 and 1470 - 1471
Henry seems to have been a decent man, but completely unsuited to kingship. He was totally dominated by the power-hungry factions at court and powerless to stop the outbreak of bloody civil war. It was clearly too much for him to cope with, as his recurring mental illness from 1453 onwards showed. During the Wars of the Roses it was his queen, Margaret, who was the driving force behind the Lancastrian faction, while Henry was captured first by one side, then the other. Whoever had the king in their possession was able to claim to be ruling in his name.
In 1590, William Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about the life of Henry VI: Henry VI, part 1, Henry VI, part 2, and Henry VI, part 3. Henry also appears as a ghost in Richard III.UK77525. Silver groat, SCBC 1875, North 1461 (cross IIIb); pinecone-mascle issue, EF, toned, weight 3.870 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 90o, Calais mint, first reign, 1431 - 1433; obverse + HENRIC' DI' GRA' REX ANGLIE Z FRANC (Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England and France), facing crowned bust of Henry, an annulet on each side of neck, within a tressure of nine arcs; reverse POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM (I have made God my helper), VILLA CALISIE (Town of Calais), long cross pattée, three pellets in each quarter; ex Pegasi (Nov 2012); SOLD
England, John I, 1199 - 1216
John signed the Magna Carta in 1215. No subsequent king has been known as John II. The name Henricus was continued on both the coins of Richard and John.UK77521. Silver short cross type, class Vb2, struck in the name and types of Henry II; SCBI 56 Mass 1417A (this coin), North 970, SCBC 1351, aEF, great portrait, toned, weight 1.504 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, London mint, moneyer Reinhar, c. 1205 - 1207; obverse hENRICVS REX (King Henry), crowned facing bust, cruciform scepter in right hand; reverse + RENER • ON • LVND (ND ligate), voided short cross, four pellets connected by crossed lines in each quarter; ex CNG auction 90 (23 May 2012), lot 2479; ex Andrew Wayne Collection; ex Dix, Noonan, Webb, auction 69, part III (15 March 2006), part of lot 1059 (includes ticket, Prof. Jeffrey P. Mass Collection, purchased from Spink, 1999); scarce; SOLD
England, Henry III, 1216 - 1272 A.D.
Henry III became king as a boy of nine years and reigned fifty-six years, during which England prospered. He made Westminster the seat of government and expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament" in 1264. On the Continent, he unsuccessfully endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine. UK77518. Silver penny, Class VIIa1, SCBI 56 Mass 1954, North 978aA, SCBC 1356A, VF, toned, weight 1.447 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, London mint, moneyer Ilger, 1217 - 1218; obverse HENRICVS REX (King Henry), crowned bust facing, cruciform scepter in right hand; reverse +ILGER ON LVNDE, short voided cross with quatrefoil in each angle; ex CNG e-auction 266 (19 Oct 2011), lot 533; ex Deyo Collection; SOLD
The Early-Medieval emporium of Dorestad, Frisia (south-east of the province of Utrecht, Netherlands near Wijk bij Duurstede). The township was established at the base of a Roman fortress in the 7th Century and was situated near the northernmost Northern branch of the Rhine which splits into the Lek and the Kromme Rijn. The settlement was included in the North-eastern shipping routes due to its proximity to the fork in the Rhine, with access to Germany (via the Lek) and to England, the North of France, the Northern Netherlands, the North of Germany, and Scandinavia (via the Kromme Rijn). Initially, the Franks and the Frisians fought for control of the territory. However, the Franks quickly gained control of the Frisian Coast. Dorestad flourished between the 7th Century and the middle of the 9th Century. The settlement was well known for minting coins under the control of several Frankish rulers. It is generally believed that the township reached its peak around the 820s ? 830s and declined considerably thereafter. It is thought that the decline occurred due to Viking invasions as well as a decline in the economy. By the 9th Century, it seems that the need for international trade was waning as regional trade gained importance. The majority of the information known about the emporium comes from a combination of historical documents, archaeological finds and numismatic evidence.ME77834. Silver sceat, Abramson E215, North 45, SCBC 790G, gVF, toned, weight 1.214 g, maximum diameter 12.2 mm, Dorestad (near Wijk bij Duurstede, Netherlands) mint, 695 - 740; obverse degraded porcupine-like bust right; reverse pellet within annulet flanked by two lines, all within dotted square border, pellets and symbols in margin; SOLD
Lokri Opuntii, Lokris, Greece, 360 - 340 B.C.
Lokrian Ajax (the Lesser) was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the king of Locris. Locrians are mentioned by Homer in the Iliad as following Ajax, the son of Oïleus, to the Trojan War in forty ships, and as inhabiting the towns of Kynos, Opus, Calliarus, Besa, Scarphe, Augeiae, Tarphe, and Thronium. Lokrian Ajax was called the "lesser" or "Lokrian" Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax the Great, son of Telamon. He is also mentioned in the Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid.SH84346. Silver stater, BCD Lokris 58, Gulbenkian 491, HGC 4 992 var. (no star), BMC Central -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, aVF/F, superb classical style, high relief obverse die, well centered, light marks, light porosity, weight 11.715 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, Lokri Opuntii mint, 360 - 340 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter left, wreathed in grain, wearing drop earring; reverse OΠONTIΩ−N, Ajax son of Oileus, advancing right in fighting attitude, wearing Corinthian helmet, nude, short sword in right, broken spear on ground in background, palmette above griffin right (control symbols) inside shield, eight-rayed star (control symbol) lower right; ex Pegasi Numismatics; SOLD
England, Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603
At twenty-five years old, Elizabeth inherited a weak bankrupt nation, torn by religious discord. Her supporters counseled that her only hope, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband. Instead, she ruled alone for nearly half a century, driven by her genuine love for her subjects. She is perhaps the greatest English monarch in history.UK77517. Silver sixpence, Borden-Brown 37 (O1/R1), North 2030, SCBC 2599, gVF, toned, weight 3.083 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, milled coinage, lis mint mark, Tower mint, 1567; obverse ELIZABETH · D’ · G’ · ANG’ · FRA’ · ET · HI’ · REGI’ (Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland), crowned bust left (Borden & Brown bust F), rose behind; reverse POSVI DEV’ · AD IVTORE M · MEV’ · (I have made God my helper), royal coat-of-arms (passant lions and fleurs-de-lis) on long cross fourchée, ·15-67· above shield; ex CNG e-auction 247 (12 Jan 2011), lot 751; scarce; SOLD
Great Britain, Charles I, 1625 - 1649
Charles I attempted to reign as an absolute monarch and rule without Parliament. Civil war broke out, the forces of the King lost, and Charles was beheaded.UK70336. Silver halfgroat, SCBI 33 Brooker 721 (same dies), North 2302, SCBC 2856, lozenge/- mint mark, Choice aEF, toned, exceptional, weight 0.961 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, Tower mint, Briot's first milled issue, 1631 - 1632; obverse CAROLVS D · G · MAG BRIT FR ET HIB R (Charles by the Grace of God King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), bust left, crowned and mantled; ·II· to right, B below; reverse .IVSTITIA.THRONVM.FIRMAT. (Justice strengthens the throne), square-topped coat-of-arms over long cross moline; ex CNG auction 90 (23 May 2012), lot 444; ex Ian Gordon Collection; ex Dix, Noonan, Webb 85 (17 March 2010), lot 444; SOLD