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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt, Ancient Counterfeit
J. G. Milne wrote in 1933, "There are scarcely any counterfeits or forgeries of Alexandrian coins in existence, other than those made in modern times." This is an ancient counterfeit Alexandrian tetradrachm of Nero struck with unofficial dies shared with counterfeit coins published by William Metcalf in "Two Alexandrian Hoards." The first of the two hoards, a "Hoard of Forgeries from Luxor" was acquired by E. T. Newell at Luxor in March, 1908. The American Numismatic Society Collection includes 76 pieces from the hoard. The counterfeits were probably struck c. 138 A.D., the date of the latest official prototype imitated in the hoard. The die combination of our coin is upublished.RX85240. Billontetradrachm, Metcalf Two, part 1. A Hoard of Forgeries from Luxor, Obv. IV / Rev. 8 (unlisted die combination); cf. Dattari 246, RPC I 5293 (official, Alexandria), VF, attractive dark toning, well centered and struck on a tight flan, weight 13.386 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 0o, unoffical counterfeiter's mint, c. 138 A.D.; obverse NEo KΛΛV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓEPM, radiatebust right, wearing aegis; reverse AVTO KPΛ, helmeted and cuirassedbust of Roma right, L IΓ (year 13 = 29 Aug 66 - 28 Aug 67 A.D.) to right; very rare; $580.00 SALE PRICE $522.00
Magnus Maximus, July 383 - 28 July 388 A.D.
After the Roman troops in Britain, proclaimed general Magnus Maximus emperor, he invaded Gaul and drove Gratian before him until the latter was overrun and assassinated. After negotiations, Theodosius I recognized Magnus Maximus and his son, Flavius Victor, as emperors in Britannia and Gaul. Gratian's brother Valentinian II retained Italy, Pannonia, Hispania, and Africa. In 386 A.D., driven by reckless greed, Magnus Maximus invaded Italy, driving out Valentinian II, who fled to Theodosius I. Commanding an army of Goths, Huns and Alans, Theodosius marched west and defeated Magnus Maximus at the Battle of the Save. On 28 August 388, Magnus Maximus surrendered at Aquileia and was executed.RL84408. Silver siliqua, RIC IX Trier 84b(1), RSC V 20a, SRCV V 20644, Cohen VIII 20 (10 fr.), VF, flan crack, dark encrustations, weight 1.831 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 384 - 28 Jul 388 A.D.; obverse D N MAG MA-XIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseVIRTVS ROMANORVM (courage of the Romans), Roma seated facing on throne, head left, left leg bare, globe in right hand, spear in left hand, TRPS in exergue; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles GothicusMaximus and GermanicusMaximus.RA76944. Silveredantoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V, part 22, 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice EF, near full silvering, superb portrait, light marks, weight 4.097 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00
Amisos, Pontos, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.SH90327. Bronze AE 26, RPC I 2144; cf. Rec Gen 47 ff. (various monograms); SNGvA 6732 - 6733; SNG Stancomb 1042; SNG BM -; SNG Cop -, Choice aVF, very thick flan, attractive style, weight 19.462 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, time of Augustus, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse diademed head of Apollo right, uncertain monogram below neck; reverse Amisos (on left) and Roma standing confronted, Amisos holding bridal(?) in right; Roma extending patera in right, shield on left shoulder, spear against her right side; AMIΣHNΩN in exergue; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Valens was the younger brother of Valentinian I, and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians. In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens was defeated by the Goths at the catastrophic battle of Hadrianople, where he lost his life and two-thirds of the Roman army was killed.RS84407. Silver siliqua, RIC IX Trier 27(e)1, RSC V 109a, Hunter V 7, SRCV V 19675, VF, well centered, toned, flan cracks, bumps and marks, light corrosion, weight 1.963 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from the front; reverseVRBS ROMA (City of Rome), Roma seated left on throne, Victory on globe in Roma's right hand, scepter or spear without point vertical in her left hand, Victory extends wreath in right hand and holds palm frond over left shoulder in left hand, TRPSē in exergue; scarce; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honorAugustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.RB84964. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC III 780, BMCRE IV 1710, Cohen II 753, SRCV II 4221, Hunter II -, aVF, nice green patina, small edge crack, weight 23.734 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 145 - 161 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head right; reverseRoma seated left, Victory holding wreath and palm in extended right hand, long scepter resting against the crook of her left arm, her left forearm resting on shield set on a prow behind, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
Lot of 2 VF RomaCommemoratives, Wolf and Twins Reverse, 333 - 334 A.D.
On 11 May 330, Constantine I refounded Byzantium, renamed it Constantinopolis after himself, and moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to his new city. Coins were issued with types for Rome and Constantinople to advertise the importance of the new capital.RL84874. Billon reduced centenionalis, Pair of Rare Wolf and Twins; 1) Palm frond, RIC VII Trier 561 (ex CNG); 2) Wreath: RIC VIIArles 373, EF, minor flaws, 333 - 334 A.D.; obverseVRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle; reverse she-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus, symbol between two stars above, mintmark in exergue; rare types; $155.00 SALE PRICE $140.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.RB77368. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IV 693 (R); BMCRE V p. 139, 562; Cohen IV 773; SRCV II 6445; Hunter III -, F, green patina, weight 20.523 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 195 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERTAVG IMP V, laureate head right; reverseVIRTVTI AVG (to the valor of the emperor), Septimius Severus on the left, standing left, in military attire, Victory on globe in his right hand, spear in his left hand; Virtus or Roma standing left behind him, helmeted, in military attire, crowning him with a wreath in her right hand, parazonium in her left, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; ex Forum 2014; rare; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00
Roman Republic, L. Flaminius Chilo, 109 - 108 B.C.
Spartacus, the Roman slave and rebel leader was born in 109 B.C. He died in 71 B.C.RR85331. Silver denarius, Crawford 302/1, Sydenham 540, BMCRRRome 537, RSC IFlaminia 1, RBW Collection 1144, SRCV I 179, VF, toned, bumps marks, weight 3.858 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 109 - 108 B.C.; obverseROMA, helmeted head of Roma right, X (mark of value) below chin; reverseVictory in biga right, wreath in right hand, reigns in left hand, L FLAMINI below, CILO in exergue; $135.00 SALE PRICE $122.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
The flattering appellation "the restorer of the city" was doubtless given not for either rebuilding or embellishing Rome, but rather for restoring the honor of the "Eternal City" by avenging the death of Pertinax, securing domestic tranquility to the empire, and reestablishing respect for the Roman name by victories over the Parthians.RS85209. Silver denarius, RIC IV 288; RSC III 606; BMCRE V p. 221, 359; Hunter III 98; SRCV II 6358, Choice VF, will centered and struck on a broad flan, some reverse die wear, edge cracks, weight 3.497 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 202 - 210 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseRESTITVTOR VRBIS, Roma seated left on shield, palladium in right hand, spear vertical behind in left; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00