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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ RomaView Options:  |  |  |   

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Nero considered himself an artist, perhaps he was and took an interest in his coinage - the sestertii of Nero are considered by many to be the finest numismatic art of the Roman Empire.
RB84073. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 443 (S), Mac Dowall WCN 428, Giard Lyon 119, BnF II 83, Cohen I 262, BMCRE I -, Hunter I -, SGCV I -, VF, fine style, excellent portrait, attractive brown toning, obverse slightly off center, some light corrosion, weight 25.990 g, maximum diameter 35.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum mint, 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left, globe at point of neck; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, wearing helmet and military garb, Victory in offering wreath in her right hand, her left hand resting on parazonium at side, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field at center, ROMA in exergue; $1170.00 (1041.30)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt, Ancient Counterfeit

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J. G. Milne wrote in 1933, "There are scarcely any counterfeits or forgeries of Alexandrian coins in existence, other than those made in modern times." This is an ancient counterfeit Alexandrian tetradrachm of Nero struck with unofficial dies shared with counterfeit coins published by William Metcalf in "Two Alexandrian Hoards." The first of the two hoards, a "Hoard of Forgeries from Luxor" was acquired by E. T. Newell at Luxor in March, 1908. The American Numismatic Society Collection includes 76 pieces from the hoard. The counterfeits were probably struck c. 138 A.D., the date of the latest official prototype imitated in the hoard. The die combination of our coin is upublished.
RX85240. Billon tetradrachm, Metcalf Two, part 1. A Hoard of Forgeries from Luxor, Obv. IV / Rev. 8 (unlisted die combination); cf. Dattari 246, RPC I 5293 (official, Alexandria), VF, attractive dark toning, well centered and struck on a tight flan, weight 13.386 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 0o, unoffical counterfeiter's mint, c. 138 A.D.; obverse NEo KΛΛV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓEPM, radiate bust right, wearing aegis; reverse AVTO KPΛ, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Roma right, L IΓ (year 13 = 29 Aug 66 - 28 Aug 67 A.D.) to right; very rare; $580.00 (516.20)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Nero considered himself an artist, perhaps he was and took an interest in his coinage - the sestertii of Nero are considered by many to be the finest numismatic art of the Roman Empire.
SL85102. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 517, Cohen I 268, BMCRE I 328, SRCV I 1961, NGC Ch VF, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (3990900-001), weight 25.14 g, maximum diameter 34 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate head left, globe at point of bust; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, Victory in right hand, left arm resting on parazonium at side, shields behind, S - C (senatus consulto) across field, ROMA in exergue; ex Heritage auction 3054, lot 32090; $580.00 (516.20)


Magnus Maximus, July 383 - 28 July 388 A.D.

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After the Roman troops in Britain, proclaimed general Magnus Maximus emperor, he invaded Gaul and drove Gratian before him until the latter was overrun and assassinated. After negotiations, Theodosius I recognized Magnus Maximus and his son, Flavius Victor, as emperors in Britannia and Gaul. Gratian's brother Valentinian II retained Italy, Pannonia, Hispania, and Africa. In 386 A.D., driven by reckless greed, Magnus Maximus invaded Italy, driving out Valentinian II, who fled to Theodosius I. Commanding an army of Goths, Huns and Alans, Theodosius marched west and defeated Magnus Maximus at the Battle of the Save. On 28 August 388, Magnus Maximus surrendered at Aquileia and was executed.
RL84408. Silver siliqua, RIC IX Trier 84b(1), RSC V 20a, SRCV V 20644, Cohen VIII 20 (10 fr.), VF, flan crack, dark encrustations, weight 1.831 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 384 - 28 Jul 388 A.D.; obverse D N MAG MA-XIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS ROMANORVM (courage of the Romans), Roma seated facing on throne, head left, left leg bare, globe in right hand, spear in left hand, TRPS in exergue; $280.00 (249.20)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
RA76944. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V, part 22, 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice EF, near full silvering, superb portrait, light marks, weight 4.097 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; $225.00 (200.25)


Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SL84528. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 1037, BMCRE IV 1420, Hunter II 169, Cohen III 284, MIR 18 233, SRCV II 4977, ANACS VF30 (4625585), Rome mint, Dec 171 - Dec 172 A.D.; obverse M ANTONINVS - AVG TR P XXVI, laureate head right; reverse IMP VI COS III (imperator 6 times, consul 3 times), Roma seated left on cuirass, helmeted and draped, transverse spear on far side in right hand, resting her left forearm on round shield stacked upon an oval shield and a hexagonal shield, S C (senatus consulto) flanking across fields; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, certified (slabbed) by ANACS; $195.00 (173.55)


Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.

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Valens was the younger brother of Valentinian I, and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians. In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens was defeated by the Goths at the catastrophic battle of Hadrianople, where he lost his life and two-thirds of the Roman army was killed.
RS84407. Silver siliqua, RIC IX Trier 27(e)1, RSC V 109a, Hunter V 7, SRCV V 19675, VF, well centered, toned, flan cracks, bumps and marks, light corrosion, weight 1.963 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse VRBS ROMA (City of Rome), Roma seated left on throne, Victory on globe in Roma's right hand, scepter or spear without point vertical in her left hand, Victory extends wreath in right hand and holds palm frond over left shoulder in left hand, TRPS in exergue; scarce; $180.00 (160.20)


Amisos, Pontos, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.

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Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.
SH90327. Bronze AE 26, RPC I 2144; cf. Rec Gen 47 ff. (various monograms); SNGvA 6732 - 6733; SNG Stancomb 1042; SNG BM -; SNG Cop -, Choice aVF, very thick flan, attractive style, weight 19.462 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, time of Augustus, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse diademed head of Apollo right, uncertain monogram below neck; reverse Amisos (on left) and Roma standing confronted, Amisos holding bridal(?) in right; Roma extending patera in right, shield on left shoulder, spear against her right side; AMIΣHNΩN in exergue; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; rare; $160.00 (142.40)


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RB84964. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 780, BMCRE IV 1710, Cohen II 753, SRCV II 4221, Hunter II -, aVF, nice green patina, small edge crack, weight 23.734 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 145 - 161 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse Roma seated left, Victory holding wreath and palm in extended right hand, long scepter resting against the crook of her left arm, her left forearm resting on shield set on a prow behind, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $160.00 (142.40)


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

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Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RB77368. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 693 (R); BMCRE V p. 139, 562; Cohen IV 773; SRCV II 6445; Hunter III -, F, green patina, weight 20.523 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 195 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP V, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVTI AVG (to the valor of the emperor), Septimius Severus on the left, standing left, in military attire, Victory on globe in his right hand, spear in his left hand; Virtus or Roma standing left behind him, helmeted, in military attire, crowning him with a wreath in her right hand, parazonium in her left, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; ex Forum 2014; rare; $140.00 (124.60)




  



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Catalog current as of Wednesday, June 28, 2017.
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