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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Roma||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH34948. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 247, BMCRE I 178, Good VF, Tiber patina, weight 28.904 g, maximum diameter 34.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, right foot on helmet, holding Victory and parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C at sides; fine style, ex Edward J. Waddel; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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The Nero sestertii from the Rome mint are scarcer than those from Lugdunum. The Rome portrait style is almost uniformly better.
RB84071. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 275, BMCRE I p. 233, 180, Mac Dowall WCN 137, Cohen I 264, Giard Lyon -, BnF II -, SRCV I -, Choice gVF, nice style, attractive portrait, nice green patina, slight porosity on reverse, weight 26.200 g, maximum diameter 35.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, light beard, wearing aegis(?); reverse Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, wearing helmet, cuirass, short tunic and military boots, Victory in her right hand, her left hand resting on parazonium at side, her right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field, ROMA in exergue; ex Stack's Bowers and Ponterio ANA Auction (12 Aug 2015), lot 30072; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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Vespasian could speak of Rome rising again in his reign; for he signally adorned her with new edifices and repaired old buildings, which had been damaged through neglect in prior times or from the ravages of fires under Nero and Vitellius. Vespasian estimated it would cost no less than 400 million aurei to restore the city. Even its inviolable Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been burned to the ground in the last days of Vitellius' regime. Tacitus remarked in his Annals (xv.41), "quamvis in tanta RESVRGENTIS VRBIS pulchitudine multa seniores meminerant, quoe reparari neguibant" (Although such a great number of works beautifully restored the city, elders remembered as much that could not be repaired).
RB63451. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II 195 (same dies), BMCRE II 565 (same dies), Cohen 424, gF, weight 22.81 g, maximum diameter 33.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right, aegis on far shoulder; reverse ROMA RESVRGES (Rome rising again), Vespasian standing left, togate, extending his hand and raising Roma (the city) who kneels right before him; armed Virtus (or Roma the goddess) stands right in the background behind, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; rare (RIC R2); SOLD


Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH37368. Orichalcum sestertius, Kraay Officina D, obverse die A55 (pl. XVIII), new reverse die; BMCRE I 87; BnF III 115; RIC I 240; Cohen I 170 (6 Fr.), VF, weight 25.790 g, maximum diameter 35.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 68 - 69 A.D.; obverse SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse ROMA S C, Roma seated left on cuirass and two shields, right foot on helmet, spear in right; ex Harlan J. Berk; ex Thomas D. Walker Collection (1980s); excellent portrait; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Nero considered himself an artist, perhaps he was and took an interest in his coinage - the sestertii of Nero are considered by many to be the finest numismatic art of the Roman Empire.
RB84073. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 443 (S), Mac Dowall WCN 428, Giard Lyon 119, BnF II 83, Cohen I 262, BMCRE I -, Hunter I -, SGCV I -, VF, fine style, excellent portrait, attractive brown toning, obverse slightly off center, some light corrosion, weight 25.990 g, maximum diameter 35.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum mint, 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left, globe at point of neck; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, wearing helmet and military garb, Victory in offering wreath in her right hand, her left hand resting on parazonium at side, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field at center, ROMA in exergue; SOLD


Pescennius Niger, April to 1 June 193 - March, April or May 194 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH35846. Silver denarius, Unpublished; cf. RIC IV 72 aureus from Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 90 ff. (R5); RSC -, VF, weight 4.724 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse [IMP CA]ES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome)NA-E, Roma seated left, cornucopia in right, left rests on a rudder on globe; unique?; SOLD


Julius Marinus, Father of Philip the Arab, Philippopolis, Arabia

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Philip the Arab was born in a small village in Provincia Arabia. After he became emperor, he renamed it Philippopolis and an extensive construction program began changing the village to a city. Among its coins are this rare type that honors Julius Marinus, Philip's father.
SH15300. Bronze AE 23, SNG ANS 1402, Spijkerman 2, BMC Arabia p. 42, 2, Fair, holed, weight 6.513 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 180o, Philippopolis (Plovdiv, Bulgaria) mint, 244 - 249; obverse ΘEΩ MAPINΩ, Julius Marinus' bust right, carried by eagle; reverse ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN KOΛΩNIAΣ S - C, Roma standing left, patera in right hand, spear in left hand, shield at feet right; rare; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH82657. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 330, Cohen I 271, BnF I 417, Mac Dowall WCN 163, Hunter I 100, SRCV I -, BMCRE I -, gVF, excellent portrait, fine style, dark green and brown patina, some corrosion, gently smoothed, weight 24.425 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head left with light beard; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, one round and one oblong shield behind, wearing crested helmet, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, Victory offering wreath in Roma's extended right hand, her left hand rests on parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C (senatus consulto) at sides; Numismatica Ars Classica, auction 94 (6 Oct 2016), lot 127; ex Classical Numismatic Group 783132 ($1750); SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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A heavy-set depiction of this infamous roman emperor, struck near the end of his reign. Same dies as Rauch 9/05, #666.
SH21445. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 333, BMCRE I 171, VF, dark patina, weight 27.883 g, maximum diameter 34.6 mm, die axis 180o, obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head right; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory and scepter, ROMA below, S - C at sides; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Nero considered himself an artist, perhaps he was and took an interest in his coinage - the sestertii of Nero are considered by many to be the finest numismatic art of the Roman Empire.
SH04809. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 517, Cohen I 268, BMCRE I 328, SRCV I 1961, EF, weight 20.2 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate head left, globe at point of bust; reverse ROMA in ex, S - C in fields, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory, left arm resting on parazonium, shields behind; extraordinary portrait, dark green patina; SOLD




  




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Catalog current as of Tuesday, November 12, 2019.
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Roma