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Roman Republic, Dictatorship of Julius Caesar, L Hostilius Saserna, 48 B.C.
The events of 48 B.C. are among the best known of ancient history. Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and later was greeted at Alexandria with a gift of Pompey's head. The twenty-one-year-old Cleopatra VII had herself delivered to him rolled in a carpet and became his mistress. Caesar and Cleopatra defeated Ptolemy XIII, but during the battle the Library of Alexandria was burned.
This type refers to Caesar's taking of Massilia early in the war with Pompey. Artemis Ephesia was held in special reverence at Massilia, where they had a temple dedicated to her. RR82689. Silver denarius, Crawford 448/3, Sydenham 953, RSC IHostilia 4, Sear Imperators 19, BMCRRRome 3996, SRCV I 419, gVF, attractive toning, light marks, die wear, reverse slightly off center, weight 3.993 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 48 B.C.; obversebare head of Gallia right with long disheveled hair, carnyx (Gallic trumpet) behind; reverse cultus statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus standing facing, laureate, long hair falling down her shoulders and long flowing robes, holding stag left by its antlers with her right hand, vertical spear in left hand, SASERNA curving upward on left, L ? HOSTILIVS downward on right; ex Gorny and Mosch auction 176 (10 Mar 2009), lot 1962; scarce; $450.00 (€382.50)
Augustus and Agrippa, Colonia Augusta Nemausus, Gaul, 10 - 14 A.D.
This two-headed brass dupondiustype was commonly cut between the heads, creating two individual one-as coins. The final issue of these crocodiledupondii included the P P (Pater Patriae - Father of the Country) on the obverse.RP85827. Bronze cut half dupondius (as), cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SNG Cop 699, SNG Tub 161, SRCV 1731, VF, cut half, dark patina, earthen deposits, spots of light corrosion, weight 6.134 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Augusta Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, 10 - 14 A.D.; obverse IMP DIVI F P P, back to back heads of Augustus and [Agrippa (cut, Agrippa off flan)], Augustus laureate head right; reverse COL NEM, crocodile right chained to a palm, wreath with long ties above, two palm fronds below; ex Sayles and Lavender; $90.00 (€76.50)
Augustus and Agrippa, 16 - 15 B.C., Nemausus, Gaul
This two-headed brass dupondius was commonly cut between the heads, creating two individual one-as coins.
The reverse commemorates the conquest of Egypt in 30 B.C. and was probably issued in connection with Augustus' visit to Gaul in 16 B.C.RP85826. Bronze cut half dupondius (as), cf. RIC I 155, RPC I 523, SNG Cop 698, Cohen I 7, SRCV I 1729, aVF, cut half, green patina, weight 5.692 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 315o, Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, 16 - 15 B.C.; obverse IMP DIVI F, back to back heads of Augustus and Agrippa, Agrippa left wearing a rostral crown, [Augustushead right (cut off flan)]; reverse COL NEM, crocodile right chained to a palm, wreath with long ties above, two palm fronds below; ex Sayles and Lavender; $75.00 (€63.75)
Nemausus, Gaul, c. 40 B.C.
ColoniaNemausus was founded as a colony by TiberiusClaudiusNero in 45 or 44 B.C. for veterans that had served Julius Caesar under his command in Gaul and the invasion of Egypt. He was the first husband of Livia and was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce her. At the wedding he gave her in marriage to Octavian "just as a father would."RP85861. Bronze semis, RPC I 520, SNG Cop 692, SNG Munchen 431, CCCBM III 231, De la Tour 2735, aVF, green patina with highlighting earthen deposits, tight flan, slightly rough, edge split, weight 2.108 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 270o, Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse helmeted and draped bust right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse NEM COL (downward on right), Salus standing, patera in right over two snakes, left elbow on column behind; $65.00 (€55.25)
American Numismatic Society Collections Database (ANSCD) - http://numismatics.org/search/search.
Burnett, A., M. Amandry & P. Ripollès. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (London, 1992 and suppl.).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints from the Lindgren Collection. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Roman Provincial Coins (RPC) Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/.
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and The Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sutherland, C. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. I, From 39 BC to AD 69. (London, 1984). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 8: Egypt, North Africa, Spain - Gaul. (1994). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 1: Hispania. Gallia Narbonensis. (Berlin, 1968). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 1: Hispania-Sikelia. (Berlin, 1981). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain-Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
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