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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ PeaceView Options:  |  |  |   

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.


Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.

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This counterclockwise legend variety is apparently very rare, with none on Coin Archives, and we couldn't find a single example online. Cohen and BMCRE do not identify the legend direction and the types are not included on the plates. Their examples are more likely the more common clockwise varieties. The RIC coin is from different dies.
RB71567. Orichalcum sestertius, cf. RIC II, part 1, 134 (R2); Cohen I 139; BMCRE I p. 258, 174; Hunter I C3863 var. (AVGVSTI); BnF III 163 var. (obv. leg. clockwise), F, corrosion, pitting, weight 24.279 g, maximum diameter 32.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, early 80 A.D.; obverse IMP T CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head right; reverse PAX AVGVST (the peace of the Emperor, clockwise from upper left), Pax standing left, branch in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; very rare; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA73231. Billon antoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 319 (C); Webb Carausius 375; SRCV IV 13644; Cohen VII 215; Hunter IV - (p. ccvii), gVF, much silvering, light marks, tiny encrustation, a little weak in centers, edge split/crack, weight 4.819 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive-branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, S - P across fields at center, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection, ex-Wayne C. Phillips; $340.00 SALE PRICE $306.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester
RA73495. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 391; RIC V, part 2, 335 (S); Cohen VII 240; SRCV IV 13666; Hunter IV 143 var. (...P F IN AVG), VF, green patina, well centered, areas of corrosion, weight 3.604 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive-branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very scarce; $225.00 SALE PRICE $203.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA73500. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 167; RIC V, part 2, 141 (R); SRCV IV 13665; Cohen VII 241; Hunter IV 50 var. (scepter transverse), VF, attractive green patina with earthen highlighting, light marks, weight 2.846 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 45o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left, S - P flanking across field, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $220.00 SALE PRICE $198.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA73497. Billon antoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 334 (S); Webb Carausius 392, Cohen VII 241, SRCV IV 13666, Hunter IV - (p. ccvii), aVF, well centered, corrosion, bumps and scratches, weight 4.015 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped [and cuirassed?] bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive-branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very scarce; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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References list numerous Carausius varieties with Pax reverse legends but depicting Salus and also types with Salus reverse legends but depicting Pax. The references provided for comparison list a PAX AVG, with Salus type, without controls or a mintmark; David Sear attributes to London, 286 - 287 A.D. References do not list our variety but other types with F - O across the field and ML in the exergue are attributed to London, c. 289 - 290 A.D. This is the only example of this variant known to Forum.
RA73904. Billon antoninianus, Apparently unpublished; cf. RIC V, part 2, 930 ff. (no mintmarks); Webb Carausius 1031 ff. (same); SRCV IV 13661 (same, London, 286 - 287), aVF, nice green patina, overstruck or double-struck, tight flan cutting off parts of legends and mintmark, weight 2.615 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 315o, Londinium(?) or unofficial(?) mint, 289 - 290 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVS[IVS P AVG] (or similar), radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG[GG?], Salus standing half left, head left, feeding snake rising from altar at left from patera in her right hand, vertical scepter in left hand, [F?] - O flanking across the field, M[L?] in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; possibly unique!; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Carus, Early September 282 - c. July or August 283 A.D.

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An interesting reverse inscribed "The Peace of the Army" and displaying the goddess Pax holding a military standard. The message was perhaps analogous to the renaming of the U.S. Department of War to the Department of Defense in 1949.
RB71580. Billon antoninianus, Cohen VI 56; Pink VI-2, p. 26; RIC V 75 var. (no drapery); Hunter III 14 var. (slight drapery); SRCV III 12175 var. (obv. legend), Choice aEF, near full silvering, excellent centering and strike, unusual bust, a few small encrustations, very light corrosion, weight 3.312 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, Oct - Dec 282; obverse IMP CARVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX EXERCITI, Pax standing slightly left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, standard vertical behind in left hand, PXXI in exergue; rare bust variant; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester
RA73506. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 397; RIC V, part 2, 339 (S); Cohen VII 238; Hunter IV 143 var. (obv. leg); SRCV IV 13666 var. (same, also scepter vertical), aVF, green patina with some flaking, edge crack, light marks and corrosion, weight 2.563 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive-branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very scarce; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

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Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RS77585. Silver denarius, RIC IV 125; RSC III 120; BMCRE V p. 564, 223; Hunter III 63; SRCV II 7527, Choice EF, lustrous, nearly as struck, well centered, some die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.919 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 220 - 221 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right, no horn, from behind; reverse PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax advancing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter in left hand; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA73252. Billon antoninianus, cf. RIC V, part 2, 130 (R); Webb Carausius 155 ( (official, London mint, no control marks across field, ...P F AVG), VF, dark sea-green patina, interesting crude portrait, blundered legends, scratched, weight 4.200 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 225o, unofficial mint, c. 289 - 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F I AVIC (or similar, blundered), radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVC (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, head left, olive-branch in extended right hand, cornucopia in right hand, S - C(?) across fields, ML in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00




  



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Catalog current as of Wednesday, August 23, 2017.
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Peace