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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Peace||View Options:  |  |  |   

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21

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Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
SH84743. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 2, 146; RIC I 28 (S); BMCRE I 44; RSC II 16b; SRCV I 1763, Choice Mint State, as struck mint luster, excellent centering and bold strike, slightest die wear, tiny light scratch on cheek, weight 3.925 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 135o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, early ornate style, 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with ornately decorated legs set on base of two lines above exergue, reversed spear vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; even better in hand, the finest Tribute Penny Forum has ever offered (and we have handled hundreds over the last 20 years), from the Marcelo Leal Collection; scarce; SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21

Click for a larger photo
Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible
SH85106. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 1, 144; RIC I 26 (C); BMCRE I 34; RSC II 16; SRCV I 1763, Mint State, extraordinary!, centered, light golden toning on luster, weight 3.826 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, early 'plain' fine style, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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SH30320. Gold aureus, Calico 655, BMCRE II 399, RIC II 297 corrected, Choice aEF, rev slightly flat, weight 7.277 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right; reverse PACI AVGVSTI, Nemesis advancing right, winged, drawing drapery from top of gown with right, caduceus in left, snake at feet right; nice centering on a full flan; scarce; SOLD


Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

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Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
SH21696. Gold aureus, RIC I 27 (R2), BMCRE I 26, SRCV I 1833, VF, fantastic fine style, some light scratches and marks,, weight 7.620 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 90o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 44 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P IIII, laureate head right; reverse PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis, winged, advancing right, with left pointing winged caduceus down at snake, right holding out fold of drapery below chin; ex Pegasi; very rare; SOLD


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

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The rabbit on the reverse is in reference to the Roman province of Hispania Baetica and the issue is an appeal for the aid of the gods as during Hadrian's first travels around the empire, leaving Rome in 121. On this example, Minerva is shown in her "peace-giving" aspect versus her more often seen guise of war.
SH34690. Gold aureus, Calico 1309 var. (obv legend break), RIC II 70 var. (same plus portrait and spear vice scepter); BMC 117 - 118 var. (same); SRCV II -, VF, some circulation marks, weight 7.129 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 119 - 122 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HA-DRIANVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right from behind; reverse P M TR P COS III, Minerva standing facing, helmeted head left, long scepter in left hand, right hand pointing to Spanish olive tree on left, rabbit right at the base of the tree; ex Munzhandlung Basel, 6 March 1936 (Dr. H St. S & Prince Waldeck); very rare; SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D.

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In 36 A.D., Pontius Pilate was recalled to Rome after putting down a Samaritan uprising. Marcellus became governor of Judaea and Samaria.
SH30618. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 5, 151; RIC I 29 (R); BMCRE I 47; Calico 305c (S.3); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, gVF, attractive red tone, weight 7.709 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 135o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 36 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, laurel wreath ties fall in small undulations (waves); reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; Ex-Bosco Reale Hoard, Pompeii 1898; rare; SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D.

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The "Gold Tribute Penny." The Gospel of Thomas 100:1-4 (excluded from the New Testament) tells a slightly different version of the "Tribute Penny" story.."They showed Jesus a gold (coin) and said to him:† Caesarís agents demand taxes from us.† He said to them:† Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar; give to God what belongs to God, and give to me what is mine."
SH37558. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 1, 143; RIC I 25 (R2); BMCRE I 30; SRCV I 1760; Calico 305d (S.1); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, Choice VF, weight 7.677 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 45o, Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, early 'plain' fine style, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; a beautiful coin; rare (R2); SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The "Gold Tribute Penny." The Gospel of Thomas 100:1-4 (excluded from the New Testament) tells a slightly different version of the "Tribute Penny" story.."They showed Jesus a gold (coin) and said to him:† Caesarís agents demand taxes from us.† He said to them:† Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar; give to God what belongs to God, and give to me what is mine."
SH49602. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 1, 143; RIC I 25 (R2); BMCRE I 30; SRCV I 1760; Calico 305d (S.1); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, VF, weight 7.803 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 90o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, early 'plain' fine style, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; a beautiful coin; ex Pietro Paolo Studio Numismatico, Pulsano, Taranto, Italy; rare (R2); SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
SL89734. Gold aureus, Hunter I 83 (same dies), RIC II-1 770, Caliců I 662, BnF I 251, BMCRE II 280, Cohen I 319, SRCV I -, NGC XF, strike 5/5, surface 2/5, edge marks (4632896-002), weight 7.31 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head right; reverse PAX AVGVST, Pax enthroned left, extending olive branch downward in right hand, transverse long scepter in left hand; SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The "Gold Tribute Penny." The Gospel of Thomas 100:1-4 (excluded from the New Testament) tells a slightly different version of the "Tribute Penny" story.."They showed Jesus a gold (coin) and said to him:† Caesarís agents demand taxes from us.† He said to them:† Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar; give to God what belongs to God, and give to me what is mine."
SH42153. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 1, 143; RIC I 25 (R2); BMCRE I 30; SRCV I 1760; Calico 305d (S.1); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, aVF, banker's mark (M) on obv, weight 7.505 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 315o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, early 'plain' fine style, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; rare (R2); SOLD




  




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Peace