Adventus types commemorate the emperor's arrival at , either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76334. , , 2, 904 (S); 69; , p. 43; 311 var. (1st ); cf. 11195 ( mint, etc.), gVF, green with some remaining, 4.393 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 2nd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 2nd emission, end 276 - beginning 277 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), , helmeted, and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval decorated with charging horseman on left arm; PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor ), on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, B in ; ; $250.00 (€222.50)
Coinage I & II (Two Volumes)
In 278, defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of and .RA76279. , , p. 63; RIC, 2, V 376 (S) var. ( ); 283 var. (same); 131 var. (same, and ); 11984 (same), aEF, some mint luster, most remains, fantastic heroic , light corrosion, 3.341 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 0o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for over right shoulder and rectangular with square corner in on left shoulder; HERCVLI PACIF (to the pacifier), standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and skin in left, in ; very ; $235.00 (€209.15)
In 278, defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles and .RA76944. , 32 (also 3rd ); , 22, 185; 530; , p. 56-57/4; -, EF, near full , portrait, light marks, 4.097 g, maximum 24.1 mm, 180o, 3rd , mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; IMP PROBVS AVG, and right; ROMAE (eternal ), statue of seated facing inside a temple, left, in right, long in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in ; $200.00 (€178.00)
Ticinum mint series II - click to read the article, Coins of with Coded Markings of Embedded in the mint mark. The letter Q in the is the second letter of the . The letter S in the indicates this coin was struck by the second (mint workshop). The letters of the word are coded in the of coins from all the of the mint, with the specific letters of the assigned to each in order corresponding with their numbers. This probably refers to cavalry. It may be truncated because there were only six in operation.RA77126. , 488 (also with helmet); , 2, 492 (R); , p. 67/9; -, -, gVF, and struck, much , unusual , 3.366 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, 2nd , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; PROBI AVG, , helmeted and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, on left arm; (the foresight of the Emperor), standing left holding globe in right hand, long transverse in left hand, Q in left , SXXI in ; ; $150.00 (€133.50)
Adventus types commemorate the emperor's arrival at , either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76277. , , 2, 166 (S); 69; 6; , pp. 55; 11953 var. (obv leg), aEF, magnificent armed , most remaining, perfect centering, some corrosion, 4.183 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 180o, mint, emission 2, 277 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), , helmeted, and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval on left shoulder; PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor ), on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, R in ; ; $145.00 (€129.05)
was a specific virtue in ancient . It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn , even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of and was personified as the deity .
RA85002. , 435 (also ), 112 (same), 819, VI/1 p. 61, VF, nice portrait, much on , some light corrosion, 3.724 g, maximum 22.5 mm, 180o, 4th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 278 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS AVG, , draped, and right, from behind; (the valor of the Emperor), standing facing, helmeted left, in right hand, resting left hand on grounded spear and , QXXT in ; $140.00 (€124.60)
In 280 - 281, put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems (an with the name of erased has been found as far as Spain). In 281, the emperor was in , where he celebrated his triumph.RA79969. , , 2, 223; 766; , pp. 57-58/6; -; -, EF, perfect centering, bold , excellent portrait, much , die wear, 4.205 g, maximum 22.2 mm, 0o, 1st , mint, emission 6, 281 A.D.; PROBVS , and right; ( over the Germans), of captured arms, flanked on each side at the base by a seated bound captive facing outward, R thunderbolt A in ; $135.00 (€120.15)
To the ancient Romans, was "Roma Aeterna" (The Eternal City) and "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). The empire is history but is today, the eternal city. Rome's influence on Western Civilization can hardly be overestimated; perhaps a greater influence than any other city on earth, making important contributions to politics, literature, culture, the arts, , music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine.RA79930. , 42 (also 2nd ); , p. 57/5; 531; , 2, 185; -, aEF, perfect centering, much , some bumps and marks, 3.879 g, maximum 22.2 mm, 0o, 2nd , mint, emission 5, 280 A.D.; IMP PROBVS AVG, left in consular robe, eagle-tipped in right; ROMAE (eternal ), statue of seated facing inside a temple, in right hand, long vertical in left hand, R B in ; $125.00 (€111.25)
The T in the serves both as the I in a mark of value (XXI = 20 parts bronze to 1 silver, about 4.5% silver) and to indicate the mint (T = Ticinum).RA76988. , 132; , 2, 387; 310; p. 63-64/4; cf. 11988 ( leg, ), gVF, some , nice portrait, nice green , , 3.186 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 180o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 4, 278 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS , and right; (to the protector), (on left) standing right, wearing military garb, eagle-tipped in left hand, receiving with right hand globe form , (on right) standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulders, globe in right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, in ; $120.00 (€106.80)
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