Persian Empire, , Cyrus - Darios I, c. 546 - 520 B.C., Kroiseid
The Lydian Croesus minted the first silver and gold coins. He was famous for his extraordinary wealth, but after his defeat by Cyrus about 546 B.C. became a Persian satrapy. The Persian conquerors of continued to strike the same Croesus' coin types. This coin is a later example issued under . We can tell because under Croesus the and the bull were struck separately, with one punch at a time. Later examples, such as this coin, were struck with only one die with both , and only one die, simulating two square punches.GS84246. Silver (half-stater), 456; 2877; 1025; p. 7, 45; I 409; 3424, gVF, light bumps and marks, tiny edge crack, 5.303 g, maximum 15.1 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 546 - 520 B.C.; on the left, forepart of a roaring right, , on the right, the forepart of a bull left, struck with a single die; two squares, of unequal size, side by side; $580.00 (€516.20)
Seleukid Kingdom, Achaios, 220 - 214 B.C.
Achaios was an uncle of Antiochos III. He proclaimed himself in Anatolia. After a two-year siege of his capital of Sardes, , he was captured and beheaded.GY76100. Bronze AE 21, I 956 var. (unlisted control symbol), 834 var. (same), 1442 var. (same), 436 (S-R1), VF, nice green , 3.314 g, maximum 15.30 mm, 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 220 - autumn or winter 214 B.C.; laureate of right; standing right, right, wings closed, in talons, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AXAIOY in two flanking downward lines, X (control symbol) outer right; unpublished extremely variant; $430.00 (€382.70)
Maionia, , 161 - 180 A.D.
was queen of the kingdom of , the wife of , the oak-clad mountain of . After he was gored to death by a bull, she continued to reign on her own.
bought Herakles from , who sold him after an oracle declared must be sold into slavery for three years. had sought the oracle to learn what he must do to purify himself, after he murdered his friend Iphitus and stole the Delphic tripod. As a slave, Herakles was forced to do women's and even wear women's clothing and hold a basket of wool while and her maidens did their spinning. Meanwhile, wore the skin of the and carried Herakles' olive-wood club. But it was also during his stay in that Herakles captured the city of the Itones and enslaved them, killed Syleus who forced passersby to hoe his vineyard, and captured the Cercopes. He buried the body of Icarus and took in the Calydonian and the Argonautica. After some time, freed Herakles and took him as her husband.
The Greeks did not recognize as a goddess. Omphale's name, connected with , a Greek word meaning navel (or ), may, however, represent a Lydian earth goddess. Herakles' servitude and marriage may represent the servitude of the sun to the of the celestial sphere, the spinners being Lydian versions of the Moirae. This myth may have been and attempt to explain why the priests of Herakles wore female clothing.GB83463. Bronze AE 19, 222; 3011; 302; p. 129, 17, VF, , , light marks and corrosion, 4.380 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 0o, Maeonia mint, rule of , 161 - 180 A.D.; bearded of Herakles left; MAIONΩN, advancing right, holding lion's skin and club across shoulder; $350.00 (€311.50)
, Antigonos I Monophthalmos, 320 - 306 B.C., In the Name and Types of Alexander the Great
Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") was a nobleman and (general and governor) under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C., he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy and , answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C. Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C.SH79282. Silver , cf. 2646 ff., 368, gVF, excellent , well struck on a , off-center, light marks and corrosion, 16.729 g, maximum 26.6 mm, 90o, , Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, as of , 318 - 315 B.D.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to waist, around waist and legs, right foot drawn back, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left, Γ left, A under throne; nothing ( 2646), a ( 2647), or an ivy leaf ( 2649A) in ; Naville Numismatics Ltd., auction 18, lot 29; $280.00 (€249.20)
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus II Theos, 261 - 246 B.C.
Antiochus II Theos was the son of Antiochus I and Princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He inherited a state of war with and while he was thus occupied, his satraps in and declared independence. To make peace with and to seal the treaty, Antiochus repudiated his wife Laodice I, exiled her to , and married Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice. Antiochus later left Berenice and their infant son Antiochus, to live again with Laodice. Laodice poisoned him, had Berenice and her infant son murdered, and proclaimed her son Seleucus II as .GB71560. Bronze AE 16, cf. I 525.1; 1407 ff.; 95; 362; p. 15, 13; 253a (all various controls outer left), EF, nice jade green , typical , contact marks, slightest spots of corrosion, 3.767 g, maximum 16.0 mm, 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, 261 - 246 B.C.; laureate of right, hair falling in spiral curls down neck and beneath ear; with paw feet, with flukes right below, BAΣIΛEΩΣ downward on right, ANTIOXOY downward on left, outer left and outer right (controls, outer left off ); $170.00 (€151.30)
Tripolis, , 3rd Century A.D.
Tripolis on the Meander (called at other times , Apollonia, and Antoninopolis) was an ancient city on the borders of , and , on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by to ad Lycum. It was 20 km to the northwest of . Ruins are near Yenicekent, Denizli Province, Turkey. The ruins, mostly from the Roman and periods, include a theater, , city walls, and a necropolis. An ancient , dating back 1,500 years, was unearthed in 2013.RP79979. Bronze AE 19, 724; 3314; 19; pseudo-autonomous issue, VF, excellent centering, nice green , 4.170 g, maximum 19.1 mm, 180o, Tripolis mint, 3rd Century A.D.; of right, wearing a crested Corinthian helmet and ; TPIPOLEITWN, standing slightly left, on left, rudder held by tiller in right hand, in left hand; $145.00 (€129.05)
Persian Empire, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., , Anatolia
GS79827. Silver 1/4 , IV (late) C; 764; 1041; 37; cf. 679; (early - middle, A/B); p. 167, 143 (middle B), VF, on , 1.206 g, maximum 7.9 mm, 60o, c. 375 - 340 B.C.; kneeling-running figure of the Great right, dagger in right, bow in left, bearded, crowned, quiver on shoulder; square punch; very ; $140.00 (€124.60)
, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Thyatira,
Thyateira (also Thyatira) is the ancient name of the modern Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle"). In Revelation, Thyatira is the that had a false prophetess (Revelation 2:20).RP84078. AE 17, 2382; p. 302, 62; 597; 834; -, aVF, nice green , light corrosion, a little off center, 2.341 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 0o, Thyatira mint, c. 55 A.D.; NEPΩN KΛAY∆I-OC CEBA, bare-headed, draped of right, wearing light beard (indicating mourning, for the death of ); (double-axe), ΘYAT−EIPH/NΩ−N in two two lines across divided by axe ; $110.00 (€97.90)
Sala, , c. 2nd Century A.D.
was the messenger of the gods and the god of commerce and thieves. He was the son of Zeus and the nymph Maia. His include the and winged sandals.RP77505. Bronze AE 17, 455; p. 229, 15; 416, VF, , nice green , areas of corrosion, earthen deposits, 2.643 g, maximum 16.9 mm, 0o, Sala mint, c. 2nd century A.D.; ∆HMOC CAΛHNΩN, laureate and draped bearded of Demos; EΠI AN∆PONEICOY, standing slightly left, nude, draped over left arm, purse in right hand, in left hand; ex Divus Numismatik; ; $105.00 (€93.45)
Tralleis, , 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
The city of , or Tralleis, said to have been founded by Argives and Thracians (Tralli), stood upon a lofty plateau on one of the southern spurs of the Messogis range overlooking the plain of the lower Maeander. At , Zeus was called Larasios, from a sanctuary at the neighboring village of Larasa. Zeus Eumenes (the Kindly) may have had a separate sanctuary.GB90181. Bronze AE 17, 3869; 709; p. 336, 61 var. (no ); 4759 var. (same); -; -, F, 4.359 g, maximum 16.6 mm, 0o, mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; Zeus standing left, in right hand, long vertical behind in left, all within laurel ; humped bull walking right, TPAΛΛI/ANON above and below in two lines, above; ex Rudnik Numismatics; ; $95.00 (€84.55)
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