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Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.
Caius Caesar was born in 12 A.D., the son of Germanicus and Agrippina Sr. He was nicknamed Caligula, meaning "little boots," by the legions because as a child his mother dressed him in military uniforms (including little boots). Initially, he was very popular, succeeding Tiberius in 37 A.D. and for a few brief months ruling very well. However, an unknown disease drove him mad and his reign soon degenerated into debauchery and murder. He was murdered by the Praetorian Guard in 41 A.D.
|First commissioned byduring the reign of , the was a temple dedicated to all the gods of ancient . rebuilt it in 126 A.D. The building is circular with a of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a . A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the of the interior are the same, 43.3 meters (142 ft. It is one of the best-preserved of all Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the has been used as a Roman Catholic dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" but informally known as "Santa Rotonda." The square in front of the is called Piazza della Rotonda.|