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The gens Calpurnia was a plebeian family, which claimed descent from Calpus, the son of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome. The first of the gens to obtain the consulship was Gaius Calpurnius Piso in 180 B.C., but from this time their consulships were very frequent, and the family of the Pisones became one of the most illustrious in the Roman state. Two important pieces of Republican legislation, the lex Calpurnia of 149 B.C. and lex Acilia Calpurnia of 67 B.C. were passed by members of the gens.GI76937. Bronze AE 23, Calciati I p. 351, 130 (2 specimens); SNG Cop 556; HGC 2 1071 (C); SNG München 810 var. (AE28); SNG ANS -; SNG Tüb -; BMC Sicily -, gVF/aVF, attractive style, green patina, weight 5.744 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, Panormus (Palermo, Sicily, Italy) mint, magistrate C. Calpurnius, c. 241 - 50 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus left; reverse warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield behind leaning on spear, C CALP lower left; rare; $120.00 (€105.60)
Uncertain City (Panormos?), Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 211 - 190 B.C.
In 254 B.C. Panormus was captured by the Romans. It retained its municipal freedom, and remained for many years one of the principal cities of Sicily. It continued to issue bronze coins, bearing the names of various resident magistrates, and following the Roman system. Under Augustus, Panormus received a Roman colony.GI89312. Bronze triens, Semuncial standard; Calciati I p. 365, 205 (Panormos); SNG München 835 (Panormos); HGC 2 1691 (R1, uncertain Romano-Sicilian); SNG Cop -, aVF, off center but types on flan, a little rough, weight 3.239 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 90o, uncertain Romano-Sicilian mint, c. 211 - 190 B.C.; obverse veiled and draped bust of Demeter-Ceres left, small cornucopia behind neck; reverse double cornucopia, overflowing with bunches of grapes, tied with fillets, four pellets (mark of value) in a vertical line to left; rare; $100.00 (€88.00)
Syracuse, Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcus Claudius Marcellus took Syracuse in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from Syracuse lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GB76368. Bronze AE 15, Calciati II p. 422, 221; SNG ANS 1080; SNG Cop 895; SNG München 1463; HGC 2 1516 (R1), gVF, well centered, areas of light corrosion, die break reverse right field, weight 3.558 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 0o, Syracuse mint, c. 212 - 180 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left, with short hair, somewhat archaic style; reverse long torch, ΣYP−AKO/ΣI−ΩN in two divided lines across lower field; rare; $85.00 (€74.80)
Menaion, Sicily, c. 204 - 190 B.C.
In the West foothills of the Hyblaei Mountains of Sicily, an indigenous settlement on a high peak under the name of Menai, flourished until 453 B.C. when its inhabitants were moved to nearby Paliké near the well-known sanctuary of the Palici. No traces of life survive from between the second half of the 5th c. B.C. and the end of the 4th c. B.C. The city, under the name of Menainon, began once more to flourish in the Hellenistic period, as attested by its rich necropolis. After the Roman conquest the city minted its own coinage. Its existence during the Roman period is attested by Cicero (Verr. 3.22.55; 3.43.102) and Pliny (HN 3.91). The site continued to be inhabited until the Arab Conquest and again during the following centuries.GI92062. Bronze trias, Calciati III p. 186, 7; SNG Cop 384; SNG München 617; BMC Sicily p. 97, 5; HGC 2 760 (R1); SNG ANS 290 var. (∆ vice IIII), VF, well centered, porous, weight 3.841 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 0o, Menaion (Mineo, Sicily, Italy) mint, Roman Rule, c. 204 - 190 B.C.; obverse veiled bust of Demeter right; reverse MENAINΩN, crossed torches, IIII (mark of value) below; ex Muenzen Ritter (Germany); scarce; $80.00 (€70.40)
Katane, Sicily, c. 212 - 50 B.C.
In 212 B.C., after a two-year siege, despite defenses designed by the Greek mathematician and scientist Archimedes, the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus forced his way into Syracuse. Although Marcellus wished to spare the Syracusans, he was unable to stop his soldiers from sacking the city. Archimedes was killed. Marcellus carried off the art treasures of Syracuse to Rome, the first recorded instance of a practice which was to become common. GB82650. Bronze two chalkoi, Calciati III p. 110, 25; SNG ANS 1278; SNG Morcom 563; HGC 2 612 (R1); BMC Sicily p. 51, 65 corr.; SNG Cop -, aVF, green patina, scratches, porous, weight 3.768 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 0o, Katane (Catania, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 212 - 50 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse KATA/NAIΩN, Aphrodite Hyblaia (or Isis?) standing right, wearing kalathos on head, holding dove in extended right, II (2 chalkoi) right; $70.00 (€61.60)
Syracuse, Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
This type was perhaps the last pseudo-autonomous issue of Syracuse.RP79995. Bronze AE 19, Calciati II p. 434, 240/9 (same obverse die), SNG Morcom 838, SNG ANS 1099, SNG München 1483, Fine/Fair, obv off-center, ragged flan, weight 4.933 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 345o, Syracuse mint, c. 212 - 133 B.C.; obverse diademed, bearded male (Serapis, Poseidon or Zeus) head right; reverse ΣYPAKOCIΩN, female (Isis?) standing left, wreath (or sistrum?) in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; ex Forum (2011); scarce; $55.00 (€48.40)
Panormus, Sicily, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Pyrrhus occupied Panormos in 276 B.C., taking it away from Carthage. After Pyrrhus departed Sicily, the Romans occupied Panormos in 254 or 253 B.C. Hasdrubal in 251 and Hamilcar in 247 - 245 B.C. attempted to retake the town but failed. Panormos prospered under Rome, assuming great importance in trade due to its location at the center of the Mediterranean Sea.GB89333. Bronze AE 13, Calciati p. 363, 195; Winterthur 1062, HGC 2 -, SNG Cop -, SNG ANS -, SNG Morcom -, BMC Sicily -, aVF, flan crack, rough, weight 1.439 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 0o, Panormos (Palermo) mint, Roman rule, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse bust of Demeter right, veiled and wreathed in grain; reverse two heads of grain, crescent above center, flanked by a pellet on each side; very rare; $55.00 (€48.40)
Brettian League, Bruttium, Italy, c. 214 - 211 B.C., Time of Hannibal
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.GB93005. Bronze half unit, Scheu Bronze 27, SNG Cop 1679, SNG ANS 60, HN Italy 1982, HGC 1 1371 (S), gF, blue-green patina, centered on a tight flan, scrapes, patina flaking, weight 3.214 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 180o, Brettii mint, c. 214 - 211 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Nike left, hair tied in a bun at the back, NIKA upward lower left, barley-ear behind lower right; reverse Zeus standing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right hand, long scepter in extended left hand, BPETTIΩN upward on left, star between legs, cornucopia right; ex Gerhard Rohde Ancient Coins; scarce; $40.00 (€35.20)
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