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The Rome mint reopened about 540, after Justinian's conquests in Italy. It closed during the reign of Constantine V (741- 775).
Balbinus, 22 April - 29 July 238 A.D.
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and make provision. She was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult of ancient Rome. Providentia apparently did not favor Balbinus. If he had a little foresight, he would have modified the chain of events that led to his murder after a reign of only 99 days. RB86318. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IV 19, BMCRE VI 34, Cohen V 24 (12 fr.), SRCV III 8499, gVF, excellent portrait, tight flan, some marks and porosity, reverse slightly off center, edge cracks, weight 18.131 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 22 Apr - 29 Jul 238 A.D.; obverseIMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from the front; reversePROVIDENTIA DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Providentia standing half left, head left, wand downward over globe at feet in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; scarce; $980.00 (Ä833.00) ON RESERVE
Clodius Albinus, Late 195 or Early 196 - 19 February 197 A.D.
Providence is most often depicted clothed in a matronís gown, holding a cornucopia in her left hand and in her right a short wand, which she points to a globe. She holds this globe in her right hand or it lies at her feet. The type is intended to mark the power and wisdom of the emperor, who ruled the Roman world. SH85567. Silver denarius, BMCRE V 39 (also small globe), RIC IV 1(a) (R), RIC III 58, SRCV II 6145, Hunter III 1 var. (obv.legend), gVF, excellent portrait, light toning, light marks, tight flan, die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.967 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, early Jun to end 193 A.D.; obverse D CLODIVS ALBINVS CAES, bare head right; reversePROVID AVG COS (the foresight of the Emperor and Consul), Providentia standing facing, head left, wand over small globe in right hand, long scepter vertical in left; rare; $225.00 (Ä191.25)
Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
In 168 A.D., Marcus Aurelius campaigned against the Marcomanni.RS85775. Silver denarius, RIC III 578, RSC II 310, BMCRE IV 472, cf. SRCV 5360 (TR P VII), VF, interesting portrait, radiating flow lines, small edge cracks, weight 3.445 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 168 A.D.; obverse L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right; reverse TR P VIII IMP IIII COS III (holder of tribunition power 8 years, imperator 4 times, consul 3 times), Aequitas standing half left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left; $150.00 (Ä127.50)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
For the Roman nobilityvirtus came not only in one's personal "acta" but also that of one's ancestors. However, Cicero, a novus homo, asserted that virtus was a virtue particularly suited to the new man just as nobilitas was suited to the noble. Cicero argued that just as young men from noble families won the favor of the people so too should the novus homo earn the favor of the people with his virtus. He even extended the argument that virtus and not one's family history should decide a man's worthiness. Virtus is something that a man earns himself, not something that is given to him by his family, thus it is a better measure of a man's ability. Cicero's goal was not to impugn the noble class but widen it to include men who had earned their positions by merit. RS85800. Silver denarius, RIC IV 117(b); RSC III 478; Hunter III 69; BMCRE V p. 364, 37; cf. SRCV II 6873 (TR P XIIII), Choice VF, superb portrait, full circle centering, light toning, die wear, edge cracks, weight 3.073 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 210 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reversePONTIF TR P XIII COS III (priest, holder of Tribunitian power 13 years, consul for the 3rd time), Virtus standing half right, helmeted and wearing military garb, left foot forward and resting on helmet, inverted spear vertical in right hand, parazonium in left hand; $140.00 (Ä119.00)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.
From marble inscriptions, we can expand the beginning of the reverselegend to Iovi Exsuperantissimo, meaning the coin is dedicated to "Jupiter the all surpassing" or "Jupiter the most preeminent." Commodus himself added the similar title of Exsupratorius to his own titles, claiming he excelled all other mortals in all things. RS85029. Silver denarius, RIC III 152 (S), RSC II 242, BMCRE IV 213, MIR 18 730, SRCV II 5649, Hunter II -, F, well centered, light toning, edge cracks, weight 2.372 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Dec 186 - Dec 187 A.D.; obverse M COMMANT PFEL AVGBRIT, laureate head right; reverseIOVI EXSVPP M TR P XII IMP VIII, Jupiter seated left on a throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, branch in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, COS V P P in exergue; rare; $110.00 (Ä93.50)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms. RS85599. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 3, RSC IV 173, Hunter III 8, SRCV III 8627, VF/aVF, centered on an unusually broad flan, fantastic portrait, light marks, die wear, edge cracks, weight 4.223 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 238 - 239 A.D.; obverseIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reversePAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing front, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand; ex Ancient Imports, ex Harlan J. Berk; $100.00 (Ä85.00)
Byzantine Empire, Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.
In 562, Belisarius stood trial for corruption in Constantinople, possibly with Procopius acting as praefectus urbi. He was found guilty and sent to prison.BZ67007. Bronze decanummium, DOC I 353 (Ravenna), Wroth BMC 407 (Ravenna), SBCV 326 (Ravenna), Hahn MIB I 29a (Rome), Sommer 4.155 (Rome), Ratto -, F, nice green patina, weight 2.846 g, maximum diameter 15.7 mm, die axis 180o, Ravenna or Rome mint, 562 - 563 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, helmeted and cuirassedbust facing, holding globus cruciger in right, shield in left; reverse large I (10 nummi), ANNO left, XX/XVI (regnal year 36) right, all within wreath, no mintmark; $45.00 (Ä38.25)