Gortyna, , 4th Century B.C.
Gortyna in the southern of central , rivaled Cnossus in wealth and importance. A Gortynian decree of the third or second century B.C. required, under a penalty, the use of "the bronze money which the city has put in circulation," and established a to be paid by any one who "accepts in payment silver obols."GS77556. Silver , p. 161, 32, pl. XIII, 6; II 7111; -; -; -; -, aVF, , 5.102 g, maximum 22.9 mm, Gortyna mint, 4th century B.C.; and neck of bull right, turned slightly facing, round object to right from ; right, wearing of grain and cross-folded , rosette-shaped ear ornament and necklace, of dotted square from , concave ; ex & Mosch auction 233 (6 Oct 2015), of lot 3109; $320.00 (€284.80)
, , Hieron II, c. 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 - 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity. became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GI90439. Bronze hemilitron, II p. 352, 192 R1 19; p. 219, 627; 586 (Agathokles); 1235 (Agathokles); 867 ; 1469, gVF, and struck, dark green , light corrosion, light cleaning scratches, 5.881 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 135o, mint, c. 275 - 269 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of Kore-Persephone left, wearing earrings and necklace, hair rolled and bound with barley ; bull butting left, club over T (magistrate initial) above, IE (magistrate initials) in ; $190.00 (€169.10)
Akrai, , c. 211 - 80 B.C.
Akrai was a small colony founded by in 664 B.C. to secure the inland road to Gela. Constructed on the peak of a , Akrai was difficult to attack and ideal for watching the surrounding territory. Loyal to , it nevertheless had administrative and military autonomy. Thanks to its strategic position, the city achieved great prosperity, peaking during the reign of Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C. Its coinage was only issued after the fall of in 211 B.C. when it became of the Roman province Acre. The city continued to be under Roman rule into the period.GI79952. Bronze AE 23, 02; 9; III p. 37, 1 var. (KP ); p. 2, 1 var. (same); 180 (S) var. (same); -, aF, glossy lime-green , scratches, , 7.517 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 0o, Akrai (Palazzolo Acreide, , Italy) mint, c. 210 - 80 B.C.; of right, hair rolled and wreathed with barley; AK-P-AIΩN, Demeter standing left, wearing long and , torch in right hand, in left hand; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
, , Hieron II, c. 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 - 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity. became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GI83556. Bronze AE 21, p. 348, 191 Ds 65 R1 9; p. 219, 623; 1218; 1469 (S); 864 var. ( ); -, VF, nice , dark sea-green , 5.35 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 15o, mint, c. 275 - c. 265 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of left, wearing earring and necklace, hair rolled and bound with barley , bunch of grapes (control symbol) behind neck; bull butting left, club over I (magistrate initial) above, IE (magistrate initials) in ; $150.00 (€133.50)
, , Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.
With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of and later most of . Machiavelli wrote of him, "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious" and cited him as an example of "those who by their crimes come to be princes." According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.GI83555. Bronze AE 17, II p. 233, 104; 761; 10; 1245; 1989; -; -, VF, nice , dark green , pitting, 3.57 g, maximum 16.9 mm, 270o, mint, c. 317 - 310 B.C.; , of Kore-Persephone left, wearing earring and necklace, hair rolled and wreathed with barley, vertical astragalus (control symbol) behind neck; bull butting left, ax (control symbol) above, ΣΩ (magistrate initials) in ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, , Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.
In 310 B.C., Agathokles, tyrant of , defeated and besieged by , took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in . After several victories he was completely defeated in 306 B.C. and fled secretly back to . After concluding peace, Agathocles styled himself of , and established rule over the Greek cities of the island.SH69733. Bronze AE 16, II p. 239, 110; 762; 1245 ( ), gF, , 3.104 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 90o, mint, c. 317 - 310 B.C.; of Kore-Persephone left wearing earring and necklace, wreathed in barley, uncertain control symbol behind neck; bull butting left, E/Λ (magistrate) above, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $65.00 (€57.85)
, , Hiketas, 287 - 278 B.C.
Hicetas was the tyrant of for about nine years. The only recorded events during his rule are his over Phintias, tyrant of , and his defeat to the Carthaginians at the river Terias. He was expelled from by Thynion shortly before Pyrrhus arrived in .GB90325. Bronze hemilitron, cf. p. 263, 125; 1466 (S), 804; 776 ff. (various control ), aVF, nice green , 6.767 g, maximum 20.5 mm, 225o, mint, 287 - 283 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (off ), of Kore-Persephone left, wreathed in grain; driving galloping right, A(?) in (off ); ; $60.00 (€53.40)
Leontini, , 2nd Century B.C.
In 214 B.C., Roman forces lead by Marcellus stormed Leontini, which had been subject to . Marcellus executed 2000 Roman deserters who were hiding in the city and then moved to lay siege to . The siege would last for two years, thwarted in by the military machines created by the famous inventor Archimedes.GB69001. Bronze AE 23, III p. 86, 21 DS 64A (same dies); 364; 573; 716 (R1); -; -, aVF, 6.651 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 45o, Leontini mint, Roman rule, 2nd century B.C.; laureate of (or River god wreathed in reeds?) right, crab behind; ΛE−ON−TINΩN (clockwise, starting lower left), standing facing, poppy heads in right, grounded long torch vertical in left; ; $45.00 (€40.05)
Boiotia, , Federal Coinage, c. 229 - 220 B.C.
Beautiful lived a peaceful life far away from the other deities, a goddess within Nature herself before the days of planting seeds and nurturing plants. She was innocently picking flowers when Hades, god of the Underworld, burst through a cleft in the earth and abducted her. While Demeter searched desperately for her daughter she neglected the earth and caused nothing to grow. Zeus, pressed by the cries of hungry people, determined to force Hades to return . However, Hades had tricked into eating pomegranate seeds, and because anyone who consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there, she is forced return to the underworld for a period each year. Explaining the , when Demeter and her daughter are reunited, the Earth flourishes with vegetation and color, but for the months each year when returns to the underworld, the earth becomes barren.GB79290. Bronze AE 16, 100; p. 86, pl. VI, 6; p. 41, 81; 384; 2413; 1182, F, bumps and scratches, corrosion, 4.005 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 315o, Thebes mint, c. 229 - 220 B.C.; of Demeter or Kore ( ) facing slightly right, wreathed with grain; BOIΩTΩN (downward on right), Poseidon standing left, naked, right foot on rock, leaning on trident vertical behind in left; ex BCD with his tag noting, "ex , early 90's, SFr. 50.-"; $36.00 (€32.04)
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