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Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI de Lancastre, King of France and England, 1422 - 1453, The Annunciation
The obverse depicts the Annunciation, the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would be the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
This coin was struck at Dijon, a rare mint for the issue, which was minted in nine cities across France.
In 1422, the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France; the iconography of this type represents the unification of the two nations. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.SH79998. Gold Salut D'or, Schneider 102, Elias 268c, Duplessy 443, Lafaurie 447, gVF, weight 3.468 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 0o, Dijon mint, 2nd issue, 6 Sep 1423 - 1436; obverse vernicle, hENRICVS: DEI: GRA: FRACORV: AGLI: REX (Henry, by the grace of God, King of the Franks and English), double saltire stops, Virgin Mary, behind Arms of France, facing Angel Gabriel in profile left behind quartered Arms of France and England, light of God above AVE downward on scroll between them, within beaded circle; reverse vernicle, XPC'*VIHCIT'*XPC'*REGNAT'*XPC'*ImPERAT'* (Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands), mullet stops, central Latin cross, fleur de lis to left, lion to right, h below, all within tressure of ten arcs, fleur de lis on cusps, all within linear and beaded circle; this is a legend variety where Z is absent after FRACORV; very rare; SOLD
England, King Cnut, 1016 - 1035 A.D.
Cnut the Great was a king of Denmark, England, Norway, and parts of Sweden. He maintained power by uniting Danes and Englishmen under cultural bonds of wealth and custom, rather than by brutality. After the death of his heirs within a decade of his own and the Norman conquest of England in 1066, his legacy was largely lost to history.WO67179. Silver penny, North 790, SCBC 1159, VF, weight 0.959 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Eadraed, London mint, c.1029 - 1035; obverse + CN-VT REX, diademed and cuirassed bust left, scepter with lis head; reverse + EDRED ON LVND, voided short cross with annulet in center; SOLD
England, Edward III, 1327 - 1377
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most efficient military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in the evolution of the English parliament, the ravages of the Black Death and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. He remained on the throne for 50 years.UK77522. Silver groat, Lawrence Edward III 11/12; North 1249; SCBC 1616, gVF, toned, scratches to left of portrait under tone, weight 4.533 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 325o, London mint, Treaty period, 1361 - 1369; obverse + EDWARD DEI G REX AnGL DnS HIB Z AQT (Edward by the Grace of God King of England, France, Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine), crowned facing bust, within tressure of arches, with trefoils in spandrels; reverse + POSVI DEVm A DIVTOR Em mEV (I have made God my helper), CIVITAS LONDON (City of London), long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle; ex CNG e-auction 249 (9 Feb 2011) lot 457 (realized $700 plus fees); ex Spink auction 194 (Prof. Colin Rochester Collection, 26 Mar 2008), lot 502 ; SOLD
England, Henry VIII, 1509 - 1547
Henry VIII was the first English king of Ireland, oversaw the legal union of England and Wales, and continued the nominal claim to France. Besides his six marriages, he is known for his separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Despite converting money formerly paid to Rome into royal revenue, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance and numerous costly wars. Henry applied theory of the divine right of kings to England. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quash dissent, and the accused were often executed without a formal trial. In his prime, Henry was considered attractive, educated, accomplished, and charismatic. As he aged, he became severely obese, his health suffered, and he became lustful, egotistical, and harsh.UK77523. Silver groat, North 1797, SCBC 2337A, rose mint mark, VF, strong portrait, weight 2.625 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, London mint, second coinage, 1526 - 1544; obverse hENRIC VIII DI GRA REX AGL Z FRANC (Henry VIII by the Grace of God King of England and France), crowned bust right; reverse POSVI DEV' AVDIVTORE' MEV (I have made God my helper), royal arms (passant lions and fleurs-de-lis) over long cross fourchée; ex Wolfshead Gallery (2011); SOLD
England, Edward VI, 1547 - 1553
Edward VI's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer, and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. It also saw the transformation of the Anglican Church into a recognizably Protestant body.UK86153. Silver shilling, SCBC 2466B, North 1917/2 (S), VF, toned, marks and scratches, underweight, weight 3.737 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, die axis 0o, Y mintmark, Southwark mint, second issue, 1549; obverse EDWARD VI D G ANGL FRA Z HIB REX (Edward VI by the Grace of God King of England, France and Ireland), crowned bust right, tall narrow bust with small crown; reverse TIMOR DOMINI FONS VITE M D XLIX (Fear of the Lord is the fountain of life, 1549), shield with heavy curved garniture, E - R (Edwardus Rex) at sides; scarce; SOLD
England, Edward I Longshanks, 1272 - 1307
Elias notes, "In my experience for every 30 or 40 deniers with the EDWARD' FILI' legend only one with the EDWARDVS REX occurs."
Known as Edward Longshanks for his height of 6 ft. 2 in., and sometimes as the "Hammer of the Scots." Edward was ruthless in pursuing his aims and crushing those who opposed him. He conquered large parts of Wales and almost succeeding in doing the same to Scotland.UK86321. Silver denier au lion, Elias 15 (RR), SCBC-SII 8016, Duplessy 1039, Poey d'Avant 2790, aVF, toned, scratches, earthen deposits, small edge crack, weight 0.736 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Aquitaine mint, 1272 - 1307; obverse + EDWARDVS REX (King Edward, S on its side), lion passant left within inner circle; reverse + DVX AqVITANIE (Duke of Aquitaine), cross pattée within inner circle; very rare; SOLD
Great Britain, Charles I, 1625 - 1649
Charles I attempted to reign as an absolute monarch and rule without Parliament. Civil war broke out, the forces of the King lost, and Charles was beheaded.SH84616. Silver shilling, SCBC 2791; North, group D, 2225, aVF, well centered, toned, light marks and scratches, weight 5.845 g, maximum diameter 31.4 mm, die axis 90o, Tower Mint mint, 1634 - 1635; obverse CAROLVS.D:G:MAG:BR:FR:ET:HI:REX. (Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, France and Ireland), crowned bust left, mark of value XII behind, no inner circle, bell mark; reverse CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO (I reign under the auspices of Christ), bell mint mark, round garnished shield, no inner circle, no plum, no CR; SOLD
Great Britain, Charles I, 1625 - 1649
Charles I attempted to reign as an absolute monarch and rule without Parliament. Civil war broke out, the forces of the King lost, and Charles was beheaded. Parliament took control of the Tower mint in 1642.UK85378. Silver crown, SCBC 2758, North 2195 (R); crown mint mark on obverse and reverse, F/VF, light marks, weight 29.304 g, maximum diameter 45.2 mm, die axis 345o, Tower mint, 1635 - 1636; obverse CAROLVS • D • G • MAG • BRI • FRA • ET • HIB • REX (Charles, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), king on horseback left (group III), holding upright sword in right hand, no ground; reverse CRISTO • AVSPICE • REGNO • (I reign under the auspices of Christ), oval garnished shield - royal coat-of-arms (lion, fleur de lis, harp) within ornate oval frame; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; rare; SOLD
England, William I the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087 A.D.
William I the Conqueror was Duke of Normandy and the first Norman King of England. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, then held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson, who was named the next king by Edward on the latter's deathbed in January 1066. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support William's claim. William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 William's hold on England was mostly secure, allowing him to spend most of the rest of his reign on the continent. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, and was buried in Caen. His reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but instead continued to administer each part separately. William's lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. This type is believed to be the last type of William I's reign. It may have continued into the reign of William II.UK91703. Silver penny, PAXS type; SCBC 1257, North 848, BMC Norman Kings 8, SCBI -, aEF, light tone on luster, die wear, parts of legends weak, tight flan, weight 1.377 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, moenyer Aefwine, Wilton mint, c. 1083 - 1087; obverse + PILLELM REX, crowned and diademed bust facing, trefoil scepter in right hand held over left shoulder; reverse + IELFPINE ON PIIL (or similar), cross pattée, within each angle an annulet containing one letter of the the word PAXS; SOLD
France, Provincial, Duchy of Normandie, William the Conqueror, 1035 - 1087, In the Name of William Rufus(?)
There are two varieties of this denier, one with RICAR above the pediment (Legros 336) and the other with two W's (Legros 337, Dumas and Legros list only one specimen, in the Brussels Coin Cabinet). These two types were struck in the reign of William the Conqueror, after 1070. The RICAR issue may have been struck in the name of his son Richard (1057- c. 1081), Duke of Bernay; and the W's may refer to his son William Rufus (1056 - 1100), King of the English.ME79660. Silver denier, Dumas pl. XX, 12 (Brussels Coin Cabinet); Legros 337 (same, unique); Poey d'Avant –; Duplessy Féodales –; Roberts –; De Wit Collection –, VF, toned, weight 0.801 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rouen mint, c. 1070 - 1081; obverse + NORMANNA, cross pattée, pellets in each quarter, within linear inner border; reverse stylized cathedral facade, cross within arched doorway, two pellets above arch, two towers flanking (each a line topped with an annulet), pellet in triangular pediment, two W's (for William Rufus?) above the pediment; extremely rare; SOLD
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