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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Hungary||View Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary emerged in 1000 when the Principality of Hungary, founded in 896, was recognized as a Kingdom. The form of government was changed from Monarchy to Republic briefly in 1918 and again in 1946, ending the Kingdom and creating the Republic of Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary consisted of present-day Hungary, Transylvania (in present-day Romania), Slovakia, Carpatho Ruthenia (in present-day Ukraine), Vojvodina (in present-day Serbia), Burgenland (in present-day Austria), Slavonia, Dalmatia (present day Croatia), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. Attila was regarded as an ancestral ruler of the Hungarians, however, this claim is rejected by most scholars today. The first kings of the Kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty and the first Christian King was Stephen I of Hungary who was canonized as a Catholic saint.


Kingdom of Hungary, Béla IV, 1235 - 1270 A.D.

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The Mongols invaded Hungary and annihilated Béla's army in the Battle of Mohi on 11 April 1241. He escaped, but a Mongol detachment chased him from town to town as far as Trogir on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The Mongols devastated the country before their unexpected withdrawal in March 1242. Béla introduced radical reforms to prepare for a second Mongol invasion. He allowed the barons and bishops to erect stone fortresses and have private armed forces. He promoted the development of fortified towns. Thousands of colonists arrived from the Holy Roman Empire, Poland and other neighboring regions to settle in the depopulated lands. Béla's efforts to rebuild his devastated country won him the epithet "second founder of the state."
ME92190. Silver obulus, Huszár 307, Réthy 242, VF, toned, weight 0.218 g, maximum diameter 8.8 mm, die axis 0o, obverse tower with gate between two fleur-de-lis, arch below, dot border; reverse Hebrew letter chet within floral ornament, dot border; SOLD


Hungary, Ferdinand I, 1526 - 1564

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In 1526 Louis II met Suleiman the Magnificent in the famous Battle of Mohács. The Turks won and during retreat the Hungarian king was drowned in a river by his heavy armor. The battle put an end to independent Hungary; what remained clear of Ottomans was ruled by the Habsburgs, starting with Ferdinand I.
ME35541. Silver denar, Huszár 935, EF, Kremnitz mint, 1539; obverse FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG•1539•, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms: Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion; reverse PATRONA •(rosette) • VNGARIE, crowned Madonna with infant Jesus in her right arm, K-B (privy mark) divided across field; SOLD


Hungary, Bela III, 1172 - 23 Apr 1196

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Béla III, the second son of King Géza II, was brought up at the Byzantine court. His uncle, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, designated him as his successor until the birth of his own son. Following the death of his elder brother, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of his uncle Manuel I and Pope Alexander III. A significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the wealthiest monarchs of Europe of his age: his annual revenue was the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.
ME56308. Bronze follaro, Huszár 72, Unger 114, aEF, weight 2.476 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, die axis 180o, Esztergom mint mint, 1172 - 23 Apr 1196; obverse SANCTA mARTIA, Virgin Mary seated facing, scepter in right hand, infant Christ in left arm; reverse REX BELA REX SCS, two kings seated facing, each with a cruciform scepter in right hand; SOLD


Hungary, Bela III, 1172 - 23 Apr 1196

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Béla III, the second son of King Géza II, was brought up at the Byzantine court. His uncle, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, designated him as his successor until the birth of his own son. Following the death of his elder brother, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of his uncle Manuel I and Pope Alexander III. A significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the wealthiest monarchs of Europe of his age: his annual revenue was the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.
ME56309. Bronze scyphate follaro, Huszár 72, Unger 114, aEF, weight 3.884 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 180o, Esztergom mint mint, 1172 - 23 Apr 1196; obverse SANCTA mARTIA, Virgin Mary seated facing, scepter in right hand, infant Christ in left arm; reverse REX BELA REX SCS, two kings seated facing, each with a cruciform scepter in right hand; SOLD


Hungary, Louis II (Lajos II), 1516 - 1526

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In 1526 Louis II met Suleiman the Magnificent in the famous Battle of Mohács. The Turks won and during retreat the Hungarian king was drowned in a river by his heavy armor. The battle put an end to independent Hungary; what remained clear of Ottomans was ruled by the Habsburgs.
ME37486. Silver denar, Huszár 842, VF, weight 0.492 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 45o, Kremnitz mint, 1518; obverse LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARIE * 1518 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon; reverse PATRONA * - * VNGARIE, crowned Madonna with infant Jesus in her right arm, K?G (privy mark) in fields; SOLD


Hungary, Ferdinand I, 1526 - 1564

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Ferdinand I, the Archduke of Austria and brother of the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was made king of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526, after Louis II was killed fighting Suleiman. He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1558; however, the Spanish Empire and other lands went to Charles' son, Philip. Ferdinand's life was dedicated to defending Europe from the Ottoman Empire.
ME75686. Silver denar, Huszár 935, Unger 55, VF, weight 0.544 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 90o, Kremnitz mint, 1546; obverse FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG•1546•, four-part shield with Hungarian arms: Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion; reverse PATRONA • • VNGARIE, Madonna seated facing, crowned, infant Jesus in her right arm, K - B (privy mark) in fields; SOLD


Hungary, Louis II (Lajos II), 1516 - 1526

Click for a larger photo
In 1526 Louis II met Suleiman the Magnificent in the famous Battle of Mohács. The Turks won and during retreat the Hungarian king was drowned in a river by his heavy armor. The battle put an end to independent Hungary; what remained clear of Ottomans was ruled by the Habsburgs.
ME38292. Silver denar, Huszár 841, VF, weight 0.595 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 90o, 1520; obverse LVDOVICVS * R * VNGA * 1520 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion); reverse PATRONA * ? * VNGARIE, crowned Madonna with infant Jesus in her right arm, K-A (privy mark) in fields; SOLD


Hungary, Louis II (Lajos II), 1516 - 1526

Click for a larger photo
In 1526 Louis II met Suleiman the Magnificent in the famous Battle of Mohács. The Turks won and during retreat the Hungarian king was drowned in a river by his heavy armor. The battle put an end to independent Hungary; what remained clear of Ottomans was ruled by the Habsburgs.
ME38297. Silver denar, Huszár 841 var. (obv. VNGA), VF, weight 0.499 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 195o, 1521; obverse LVDOVICVS * R * VNGAR * 1521 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion); reverse PATRONA * - * VNGARIE, crowned Madonna with infant Jesus in her right arm, K - A (privy mark) in fields; SOLD


Hungary, Louis II (Lajos II), 1516 - 1526

Click for a larger photo
In 1526 Louis II met Suleiman the Magnificent in the famous Battle of Mohács. The Turks won and during retreat the Hungarian king was drowned in a river by his heavy armor. The battle put an end to independent Hungary; what remained clear of Ottomans was ruled by the Habsburgs.
ME38301. Silver denar, VF, weight 0.45 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 225o, 1523; obverse 1523, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), ornaments either side; reverse crowned Madonna with infant Jesus in her right arm, L-K (privy mark) in fields; SOLD


Hungary, Ferdinand I, 1526 - 1564

Click for a larger photo
Ferdinand I, the Archduke of Austria and brother of the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was made king of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526, after Louis II was killed fighting Suleiman. He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1558; however, the Spanish Empire and other lands went to Charles' son, Philip. Ferdinand's life was dedicated to defending Europe from the Ottoman Empire.
ME91715. Silver denar, Huszár 935, VF, toned, well centered on a tight flan, weight 0.509 g, maximum diameter 16.0 mm, die axis 90o, Kremnitz mint, 1528; obverse FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG•1558•, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms: Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion; reverse PATRONA • • VNGARIE, Madonna seated facing, crowned, infant Jesus in her right arm, K - B (privy mark) in fields; SOLD




  




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REFERENCES|

Buchenau, H. "Die Münzen der Propstei Wildeshausen" in ZfN 15 (1887), p. 262-280.
Friedberg, A. & I. Friedberg. Gold Coins of the World, From Ancient Times to the Present, 8th ed. (Clifton, NJ, 2009).
Frynas, J. Medieval Coins of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland. (London, 2015).
Haskova, J. Chebské mince z 12. a 13. století. (Cheb, 1972).
Huszár, L. Münzcatalog Ungarn. (Munich, 1979).
Peus, B. Sammlung Dr. F. Bonhoff, auction 293, Frankfurt, 27 October 1977.
Réthy, L. Egyetemes Magyar Éremtár, I-II kötet. (Budapest, 1899-1907).
Unger, E. Magyar éremhatározó. (Budapest, 1997).

Catalog current as of Wednesday, December 11, 2019.
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Hungarian Coins