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Galatia was named for Gauls from Thrace who settled there and became its ruling caste following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 B.C. The local Cappadocian population was left in control of the towns and most of the land, paying tithes to the new military aristocracy who kept aloof in fortified farmsteads, surrounded by their bands. These Celtic warriors were often hired as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. For decades their war bands ravaged western Asia Minor. About 232 B.C. the Hellenized cities united under king Attalus I of Pergamum, defeated them, and forced them to confine themselves to Galatia. The Galatians were defeated by Rome in 189 B.C. and became a client state of Rome in 64 B.C. During his second missionary journey, St. Paul of Tarsus visited Galatia, where he was detained by sickness (Galatians 4:13). The Galatians were still speaking their language (Gaulish) in the 4th century A.D.
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, Tetrarch 63 - 59 B.C., King 59 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB88403. Bronze AE 27, SNGvA 6103 (same countermark); Arslan K4; SNG BnF 2333; BMC Galatia p. 1, 1; HGC 7 774 (R2); see RPC I p. 536, aVF, countermark VF, dark brown and green patina, off center, reverse flattened opposite countermark, weight 12.715 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Phrygian mint, 59 - 40 B.C.; obverse bust of winged Nike right, hair in a bunch behind; countermark: turreted head of Tyche in round punch; reverse eagle standing right on a sheathed sword, wings open, head turned back left, flanked by pilei of the Dioscuri each with a star above, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, ∆HIOTAPOV below; very rare; $310.00 (€272.80)
Nero and Poppaea, 62 - 65 A.D., Koinon Galatia, Galatia
Poppaea was renowned for her beauty and voluptuous extravagance. In 62 A.D., Nero divorced his wife Octavia to marry Poppaea. According to Tacitus, Poppaea married Otho only to get close to Nero and then, in turn, became Nero's favorite mistress, and then wife. She bore Nero one daughter, Claudia Augusta, born 21 January 63, who died at only four months of age. At the birth of Claudia, Nero honored mother and child with the title of Augusta. According to Suetonius, one day in the summer of 65, Poppaea quarreled fiercely with Nero over his spending too much time at the races. She was pregnant with her second child. In a fit of rage, Nero kicked her in the abdomen, killing her.RP79843. Bronze AE 27, RPC I 3562, SNG BnF 2400, SNGvA 6117, SGICV 662, gF, nice portraits, legends not full struck, flan adjustment marks on the reverse, small flan crack, weight 13.988 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 0o, Tavium(?) mint, 62 - 65 A.D.; obverse NEPΩNOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, laureate head of Nero right; reverse ΠOΠΠIAΣ ΣEBAΣTHΣ, draped bust of Poppaea right; SOLD
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, c. 64 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB84653. Bronze AE 18, Arslan K1; RPC I p. 536, 2; SNGvA 6099; HGC 7 775 (R1); BMC Galatia -; SNG Cop -, gVF, glossy dark green patina, slightest porosity, weight 5.923 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 45o, Pessinus (Ballihisar, Turkey) mint, c. 63 - 58 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse eagle standing left on fulmen (thunderbolt), head right, wings slightly open, monogram (∆HIOTAP) left; rare; SOLD
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