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Roman Republic, Lead Glandes Sling-Bullet, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
According to the contemporary report of Vegatius, Republican slingers had an accurate range of up to six hundred feet. The best sling ammunition was cast from lead. For a given mass, lead, being very dense, offered the minimum size and therefore minimum air resistance. Also, lead sling-bullets were small and difficult to see in flight. In some cases, the lead would be cast in a simple open mold made by pushing a finger, thumb, or sharpened stick into sand and pouring molten metal into the hole. The flat top end could later be carved to a matching shape. More frequently, they were cast in two-part molds. Sling-bullets were made in a variety of shapes including an ellipsoidal form closely resembling an acorn; possibly the origin of the Latin word for lead sling-bullet: glandes plumbeae (literally leaden acorns) or simply glandes (meaning acorns, singular glans). The most common shape by far was biconical, resembling the shape of an almond or an American football. Why the almond shape was favored is unknown. Possibly there was some aerodynamic advantage, but it seems equally likely that there was a more prosaic reason, such as the shape being easy to extract from a mold, or that it will rest in a sling cradle with little danger of rolling out. Almond-shaped lead sling-bullets were typically about 35 millimeters (1.4 in) long and about 20 millimeters (0.8 in) wide. Sometimes symbols or writings were molded on the side. A thunderbolt, a snake, a scorpion, or others symbols indicating how it might strike without warning were popular. Writing might include the name of the military unit or commander, or was sometimes more imaginative, such as, "Take this," "Ouch," "Catch," or even "For Pompey's backside."AW66458. Lead glandes sling-bullet; cf. Petrie XLIV 15-23; roughly biconical, c. 40 - 90 grams, c. 3 - 5 cm long, one sling-bullet randomly selected from the same group as those in the photo, ONE BULLET, BARGAIN PRICED!; $24.00 (€20.40)
Roman, Bronze Repousse Plaque with Centaur Holding a Bow, Lorica Sqaumata Armor Plate(?), c. 1st - 3rd Century B.C.
Likely used in some legionary application; perhaps as a lorica squamata legionary armor plate segment. AA59779. Roman, bronze repousse, 1.75 x 1.75 inches, c. 1st - 3rd century A.D.; sheet bronze hammered from behind in repousse technique to raise the figure of a centaur holding a bow, remains of two rivet holes where it was attached, tear on body, rare and interesting; from a New Jersey collection; $585.00 (€497.25)
Italy, Bronze Axe Head, Aes Formatum, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.
Bronze axe heads were used for exchange across Europe even before 1000 B.C. This complete bronze axe head dates much later, c. 5 - 4th Century B.C. It was never used to cut wood, but was cast to serve as currency.AS11911. Bronze Aes Formatum, Aes formatum bronze axe, 160.8g, 8.6cm, rough green patina, $250.00 (€212.50)
Lot of 25 Roman Republic, Lead Glandes Sling-Bullets, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
LT85399. Lot of 25 Roman Republic, lead glandes sling-bullets, 2nd - 1st century B.C., no tags or flips, actual glandes in the photographs, as-is, no returns, less than $10 each!; $225.00 (€191.25)
Italy, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.
Bronze axe heads were used for exchange across Europe even before 1000 B.C. This nearly complete bronze axe head dates much later, c. 5 - 4th Century B.C. It was never used to cut wood, but was cast to serve as currency. AS11948. Bronze Aes Formatum, Aes formatum bronze axe, 447.9g, 12.9cm, $180.00 (€153.00)
Roman, Large Iron Borer or File, 1st - 3rd Century A.D.
Another piece from the same group as this borer was dated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to 120 A.D. with a probable range of 80 A.D. - 160 A.D. Testing was done using an innovative technique which measures the carbon isotope ratio of the trace carbon in the iron. This carbon comes from the wood used in the production of the iron which must be of essentially the same age as the tool itself. Results were published in the journal, Radiocarbon, Summer 2001. AE61804. Roman borer, cf. Petrie, 'Tools and Weapons', pl. LXV, 40; 7 inches, indent at one end for attaching handle, $170.00 (€144.50)
Narino, Columbia, Capuli Complex, Sea Shell Shaped Potter Ocarina (Flute), 850 - 1500 A.D.
An ocarina is a wind instrument in the category of vessel flutes.AE61810. Pottery ocarina, 3.7 inches, Choice, in the form of a sea shell with incised dot and cross designs on a highly burnished gray surface; $170.00 (€144.50)