Romano-British Empire, , Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.
References list numerous varieties with Pax legends but depicting and also types with legends but depicting Pax. The references provided for comparison list a , with , without controls or a ; David attributes to , 286 - 287 A.D. References do not list our variety but other types with F - O across the and ML in the are attributed to , c. 289 - 290 A.D. This is the only example of this variant known to .RA73904. , Apparently unpublished; cf. , 2, 930 ff. (no mintmarks); 1031 ff. (same); 13661 (same, , 286 - 287), aVF, nice green , or double-struck, cutting off parts of legends and , 2.615 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 315o, Londinium(?) or unofficial(?) mint, 289 - 290 A.D.; IMP CARAVS[IVS P AVG] (or similar), , draped, and right; [GG?], standing half left, left, feeding snake rising from at left from in her right hand, vertical in left hand, [F?] - O flanking across the , M[L?] in ; from the Charles Peters Collection; possibly unique!; $200.00 (€178.00)
, Augusta middle 283 - middle 285 A.D.
was the Roman goddess of health. She was to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of , the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.RA84361. , , 2, 349 (R2); 7; 12419; - (p. clxviii), F, , porous, rough, edge chip, 3.044 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 0o, 1st , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 284 A.D.; MAGNIAE VRBICAE AVG, diademed and draped right, crescent behind shoulders; (health of the public), enthroned left, from in right hand, feeding snake rising up from on left, A (1st ) right, SMSXXI in ; very ; $170.00 (€151.30)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Kyrene, c. 322 - 313 B.C.
Silphium grew only in Kyrenaica and most coins of the region, including this one, depict it. The stalk was eaten as a vegetable. Parts of the were used to treat all kinds of maladies including cough, sore throat, fever, indigestion, pain, and warts. The fruit was considered both an aphrodisiac and a contraceptive, and was worth its in . Unfortunately, we will never know if its medicinal properties were real or imagined because the became extinct in the first century A.D. It's said that ate the last .GB84582. Bronze AE 14, 9, 84, 199, 6342, F, 3.923 g, maximum 14.3 mm, 270o, Kyrene mint, governor Ophellas, c. 322 - 313 B.C.; of Karneios right, [AN∆P]; silphium , K-Y flanking across ; ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.
This coin, dedicated by the to the health of the emperor, indicates was ill and vows had been made to , the god of medicine, for his recovery. and were fraternal twins, and had a sibling relationship. Perhaps she was also asked to the emperor. Unfortunately, and Diane could not . He died of the plague soon after this coin was struck.RA77133. , 1088 (7 spec.), 62, 219, 260, 11369 var., F, , highlighting earthen fill, cleaning scratches, 3.915 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, issue 4, c. mid 270; IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, left; (the health of the Emperor), on left, standing right, drawing arrow from quiver with right hand, bow in left hand, facing , on right, standing left, olive branch in right hand, resting on rock behind in left hand; ; $110.00 (€97.90)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Barbaric Imitative
Tribal peoples outside the Empire struck coinage imitative of Roman types beginning in the second century B.C. and continued to strike imitative types even after the Western Empire ceased to exist. Several official issues used this , but the is exotic and crude. These legends were never used on any official issues.RS90412. Silver , for possible prototype: cf. 497a, 642 (Roman official, ad Mare mint, 198 A.D.), VF, double struck, off-center, 2.603 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 180o, unofficial mint, [...] CAE L SEP SEV IWC (or similar, blundered), laureate right; [...]TAS (blundered, S reversed), seated left, with in her right hand feeding snake rising from at her feet, in left; $100.00 (€89.00)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
was the Roman goddess of health. According to , p. 129, the idea behind the is that the safety of the state is dependent on the health of the emperor. "For that reason holds the rudder of in some of these types, as an indication that the fate of the empire rests in her ."RB73723. , 9016, 76, 206, 187(a) var. ( vice rudder), VF/F, excellent portrait, grainy surfaces, light corrosion, 18.695 g, maximum 30.1 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, seen from behind; (the health of the Emperor), standing facing, left, feeding snake coiled around , rudder vertical vertical behind in left, ( ) flanking low across ; $100.00 (€89.00)
, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
was the Roman goddess of health. She was to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of , the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.RS71509. Silver , 305, 741, 988, 4106, VF, nice portrait, , 3.372 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 159 - 160 A.D.; ANTONINVS AVG P P TR P XXIII, laureate right; , standing left, from in right hand, feeding snake coiled around at feet on left, long vertical behind in left; $90.00 (€80.10)
, Gaul, c. 40 B.C.
was founded as a colony by in 45 or 44 B.C. for veterans that had served under his command in Gaul and the invasion of . He was the first husband of Livia and was persuaded or forced by to divorce her. At the wedding he gave her in marriage to "just as a father would."RP74283. Brass , 520, 692, 431, III 231, 2735, VF, 2.108 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 270o, (Nimes) mint, c. 40 B.C.; helmeted and draped right, S (mark of value) behind; NEM COL (downward on right), standing, in right over two snakes, left elbow on column behind; $80.00 (€71.20)
Gallic Empire, , Summer to November 268 - mid 271 A.D.
In 270, the Empire suffered an economic crisis due to usurpations, partition of the empire, invasions, and sackings of the countryside and cities. Agricultural and industrial productions were significantly decreased, and mines went unused. A monetary crisis ensued. Inflation was up to 1,000% in some areas of the empire.qRA84435. , 21b, 2564, 703 (Trier), 65, 11180 var. (same), 114 var. (same), VF, nice portrait, slightly , 2.978 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 225o, Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 269 A.D.; IMP C PIAV VICTORINVS AVG, and right; (the health of the Emperor), standing right, feeding snake in right hand from in left hand; $75.00 (€66.75)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Inferior
Nicopolis ad Istrum was founded by around 101 - 106, at the junction of the Iatrus (Yantra) and the Rositsa rivers, in memory of his over the . Its ruins are located at the village of Nikyup, 20 km of Veliko Tarnovo in northern Bulgaria. The town reached its peak during the reigns of , , the Antonines and the dynasty.RP73901. Bronze assarion, 2517 (R3), 18.104.22.168 (R2) var. (...ICT), I/I 1348 var. (same), 1020, -, -, VF, 2.530 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 45o, Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; AV KAI CE - CEVHPOC, laureate right; NIKOΠOΛ−IT ΠPOC IC, standing right feeding snake in her arms, from a in her left hand; $55.00 (€48.95)
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