, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
Augustus' sun sign was Libra. We don't know why he selected the Capricorn as his emblem. Perhaps Capricorn was either his rising sign or his Moon sign. Popular astrology, of the newspaper kind, is sun sign astrology. The ancients tended to attach more importance to the Moon sign and rising signs. Perhaps selected the Capricorn because it is associated with stern moral authority.SH84736. Silver , 1271 (same dies, attributed to auxiliary workshop, ), 126 (R2), 21, 346, 145, 1592, aMS, nearly as struck, mint luster, and bold strike, a few light marks, die wear, 3.809 g, maximum 19.7 mm, 180o, uncertain Spanish ( ?) mint, 16 B.C.; right, dot , ; capricorn right, filleted overflowing with grain and fruit on its back, celestial globe and rudder with tiller held between hooves, below; from the Marcelo Leal Collection; ; $3150.00 (€2803.50)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C., Portrait of Queen Philistis
Hieron II placed his wife and son on coins during his long reign. Those of Queen Philistis are eagerly sought after by collectors.SH84601. Silver 5 litrae, 221 (D2/R2), 893, 1546, 827, 959, 2918, 1708, 1557 (R2) (all from the same dies), aEF/gVF, , light marks, 4.441 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 180o, mint, c. 218 - 215 B.C.; veiled and diademed of Queen Philistis left, frond behind; galloping left, holding reins with both , E• in front of horses' legs, BAΣIΛIΣΣAΣ above, ΦIΛIΣTI∆OΣ ; from the Woolslayer Collection; Numismatica Ars Classica auction 27 (12 May 2004), lot 129; ex A.D.M. Collection; ex Collection, 1929 sale, lot 213; ; $3000.00 (€2670.00)
, and , October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
This was the first coin issued in Caesar's name. It was minted after his invasion of Italy and crossing of the Rubicon on 10 January 49 B.C. until his defeat of Pompey at . The symbolism on the appears to be the triumph of over evil. The refers to Caesar's office of (high priest of Rome).SH84764. Silver , 443/1, 1006, 49, 9, Gaul 27, 1557, 1399, near , light on luster, broad , , 1/5 off center, 3.834 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 30o, military mint, traveling with , 49 B.C.; walking right trampling on a dragon or ( war trumpet) ornamented to look like a dragon, below; implements of the pontificate: (cup) or (ladle), ( ), (sacrificial ax), and (priest's hat); ex J. ; $1750.00 (€1557.50)
, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., ,
Mérida, Spain was founded by P. Carisius in 25 B.C., as Augusta, the name referring to the discharged soldiers who populated the city, by order of to protect a pass and a bridge over the Guadiana river. The city became an important city in the Roman empire and the capital of province. Mérida preserves more important ancient Roman monuments than any other city in Spain (including a triumphal arch of the age of ).SH84707. Silver , 9b, 398, 291, Spain 128, 1039, 124, 1627 var. ( right), gVF, full centering on a broad , mint luster, areas, die wear, small edge cracks, 3.775 g, maximum 21.8 mm, 90o, Augusta (Merida, Spain) mint, P. Carisius, c. 25 - 23 B.C.; IMP , left; P CARISIVS (P. Carisius Legatus [ ] pro Praetore), bird's-eye view of town with walls around, inscribed above gateway in front with three battlements over two arched entrances; from the Marcelo Leal Collection; $1600.00 (€1424.00)
, Nicephorus I and Stauracius, December 803 - 25 July 811 A.D.
Nicephorus, the logothete (lord high treasurer) under Empress Irene, gained rule in a palace coup. At the Battle of Pliska, the Bulgarian , Krum, surprised and slew Nicephorus along with a large portion of the army. Krum is said to have made a drinking-cup of Nicephorus' skull. Stauracius escaped the battle to Constantinople but was mortally wounded. He surrendered his throne to his brother-in-law, retired to a monastery, and died soon after.SH83915. Gold , , 1, 2c.2; 8; 9; 1786; 238; 27.1; 1604, EF, lustrous, on a , 4.349 g, maximum 20.1 mm, 180o, 10th , Constantinople mint, 803 - 811 A.D.; hICI-FOROS bASILE', bearded facing of Nicephorus, wearing and with crown, on base in right hand, in left hand, no pellet left; STAVRA-CIS dESPO' X, unbearded facing of Stauracius, wearing and with crown, in right hand, in left hand; from the Robert Watcher Collection, ex Heritage CICF auction (Chicago, Apr 2013), lot 3024 ($940 plus fees); ; $1130.00 (€1005.70)
, Philip III and Alexander IV, c. 320 - 317 B.C., In the Name of the Great
Struck under , regent of the Macedonian empire, 319 - 317 B.C. was a general under and Alexander the Great. Following the First War of the , he was governor in while Antipater tried to assert his regency over the whole empire. In 319 B.C., Antipater made his successor as regent, passing over his own son, Kassander. A civil war soon broke out between Kassander, supported by and Ptolemy and , allied with Eumenes. In 317 B.C., Kassander drove out of and took control of the mentally disabled Philip III Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice. fled to , where he joined Alexander's mother , his widow Roxana, and his infant son Alexander IV. Together and invaded . An army commanded by Philip III immediately defected and Philip and his wife Eurydice were murdered. Soon after, however, the tide turned, Kassander was victorious, was executed, and the boy Alexander IV, and his mother Roxana were captured (both would be killed in 310 B.C. to secure Kassander's rule). surrendered the regency to , but the empire was already forever divided. is last mentioned as being alive in 304 B.C. but may have lived into the early 3rd century B.C.
SL84531. Silver ON RESERVE
, 124, 560, issue J6, 1564 ff., 93 ff. 285, 510, -, NGC AU, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (4166072-003), 17.11 g, maximum 25.5 mm, 30o, , Amphipolis mint, c. 318 - 317 B.C.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, throne without back, right leg forward (archaic lifetime ), in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, laurel branch left, Πo under throne; NGC certified (slabbed), from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $900.00 (€801.00)
, June or July 251 - April or August 253 A.D.
This commemorates Trebonianus Gallus' decennalian vows, prayers and sacrifices he made to the gods that they might him successfully achieve his tenth of rule. In a religious context, , plural , is a vow or promise made to a deity. The word from the past participle of voveo, vovere; as the result of the verbal action, a vow, or promise. It may refer also to the fulfillment of this vow, that is, the thing promised. The is thus an aspect of the contractual nature of Roman religion and sacrifice, a bargaining expressed by "do ut des" (I give that you might give).RB76162. , RIC 127a (R), 137 (10 fr.), 29, 38, 9683, VF, nice portrait, nice , on a , 17.910 g, maximum 28.0 mm, 180o, Rome mint, special emission, August - October 251 A.D.; C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; / DECENNA / LIBVS / S C in four lines within laurel tied at the bottom and closed with a jewel at the top; rarities; $600.00 (€534.00)
, , 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
This with a is unlisted in but p. 379, 135, notes that recorded the in RIN 1921, p. 118; citing a specimen in the with a PT (first ), and another in the Collection with a TT (third ). The note goes on to say the should be expected since the other rulers have parallel types in the issue, one of which is . We know of eight total specimens of this , but the coin is the only other first example known to .RL84331. , RIN 1921, p. 118 (citing the ); Ticinum 134 var. (laureate , noted on p. 379), EF, excellent bold and well-centered strike, attractive green , a few light marks, 2.947 g, maximum 19.1 mm, 0o, 1st , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 320 A.D.; CRISPVS , right; DOMINORVM NOSTRORVM CAESS, VOT * V in two lines, the in center, all within tied at the bottom, PT in ; extremely ; $600.00 (€534.00)
, Philip III and Alexander IV, c. 323 - 317 B.C., In the Name of Alexander
Struck after Alexander's death, under either Perdikkas or Antipater, regents during the joint reign of Alexander's mentally disabled half-brother, Philip III, and Alexander's infant son, Alexander IV. Philip was the bastard son of and a dancer, Philinna of . Alexander the Great's mother, , allegedly poisoned her stepson Philip III as a child, leaving him mentally disabled, eliminating him as a rival to Alexander. Neither Philip III nor Alexander IV was capable of actual rule. Both were selected only to serve as pawns. The regents held power, while Philip III was actually imprisoned. In 317, had Philip murdered to ensure the succession of her grandson. But Alexander IV would never rule. In 311 B.C., he and his mother Roxana were executed by the regent Kassander.
SL84530. Silver , 113, 224, issue H3, 682, 275, 503, 986, NGC XF, strike 5/5, surface 2/5, scratches (4163183-004), 17.04 g, maximum 25 mm, 180o, Amphipolis mint, c. 322 - 320 A.D.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, throne without back, right leg forward (archaic lifetime ), in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, Macedonian helmet left; NGC certified (slabbed), from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $570.00 (€507.30)
, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and was one of the embodiments of virtues that were of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, rejoiced in his new sovereignty.RB76153. , 38dd, 248, 1293, 33, 10495, Nice gVF, excellent portrait, green , cutting off much , 10.962 g, maximum 25.3 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; IMP C GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and right; (valor of the two emperors), standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded , inverted spear vertical behind in left, ( ) flanking across ; $560.00 (€498.40)
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