, Bar Kochba Revolt, 132 - 135 A.D.
In 134, the Romans captured Jerusalem. Simon bar Kokhba was killed in 135, at Betar, a fortress where he had taken refuge. Jerusalem, largely destroyed, was renamed . VI Ferrata rebuilt the legionary fortress in the city and constructed a Roman temple at Golgotha. An to was erected on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem. Although, resistance continued in Galilee, the Jewish diaspora began as Emperor barred Jews from Jerusalem and had survivors of the massacre dispersed across the Roman Empire. Many were sold into slavery. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.JD84994. Bronze AE 26, 77; 530; p. 307, 38; 1408a; 259b, F, , small edge crack, porous, 7.954 g, maximum 25.6 mm, 180o, year 2 (133 - 134 A.D.); seven branched tree with two bunches of dates, : "Shimon" flanking trunk; : "Year 2 of the freedom of Israel", five-lobed vine-leaf, hanging from tendril; $250.00 (€222.50)
, Italy, The Brettian League, Allies of Hannibal, c. 216 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Hannibalis, in . The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of . Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by for menial .
GI84160. Bronze , 19 ( ); 1672; 57; 1284; 351; p. 328, 76; 1978, VF, lacking due to off center and , 7.834 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 214 - 208 B.C.; laureate of Zeus right, ear of grain (control symbol) behind; BPET−TIΩN (clockwise from upper right), standing left on thunderbolt, (control symbol) left; ; $140.00 (€124.60)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17, 650; 46; 613 var. (divided ); p. 131, 12 var. (same), VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; ; $135.00 (€120.15)
Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI the Great, c. 120 - 63 B.C., Anonymous Coinage
Mithradates VI (the Great) was of in northern Anatolia from about 119 to 63 B.C. He was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and Darius I of . Mithradates is remembered as one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the most prominent generals of the late Roman Republic in the so-called Mithridatic Wars: , Lucullus, and . After Mithradates VI was at last defeated by Pompey and in danger of capture by , he attempted suicide. The poison failed because he had taken daily doses to build immunity. He then made his bodyguard and friend, Bituitus, kill him by the sword.GB84575. Bronze AE 26, cf. 310 (S), 649, 973, 232 (all SNG refs. with same countermarks, none with this ), gF, dark , thick heavy as usual for the , bumps and marks, light corrosion, 19.920 g, maximum 25.6 mm, uncertain (Amisos?) mint, c. 130 - 100 B.C.; male left in a satrapal leather cap; countermarks: helmet in round punch, in round punch, (thunderbolt) in a rectangular punch; of eight rays, bow facing inward, between rays; ; $110.00 (€97.90)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, 650; 46; 613; p. 131, 12, F, 3.792 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; ; $90.00 (€80.10)
Brettian League, , Italy, c. 214 - 211 B.C., Time of Hannibal
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.GI84833. Bronze quarter unit, 27, 1679, 1982, F, copper surfaces, a little rough, 2.682 g, maximum 16.1 mm, 135o, Brettii mint, c. 214 - 211 B.C.; NIKA, diademed of left, of grain behind; BPETTIΩN, Zeus standing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right hand, long in extended left hand, between legs, right; $90.00 (€80.10)
, , , Early 3rd Century B.C.
Agathocles, the tyrant of , died in 289 B.C. He the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as . The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves (Sons of ), seized Messana in northeast . The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. was weakened by his loss and began a renewal of their power in .GB76852. Bronze AE 17, 94, 22, 1674 (S), 315, III 8486, 126, 6530, -, F, , green , areas of corrosion, 3.626 g, maximum 16.6 mm, 90o, or uncertain Sicilian mint, early 3rd century B.C.; date tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no , or ; unbridled horse standing right, turned back looking left, no , or ; ; $70.00 (€62.30)
, Punic Iberia, c. 237 - 209 B.C.
After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes by subjugation of the Iberian Peninsula. According to Livy, Hannibal later said that he begged his father to take him to Iberia, his father agreed but demanded that he first swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of . When Hamilcar drowned in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army with Hannibal an officer under him. When Hasdrubal was assassinated in 221 B.C., Hannibal was proclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed by the Carthaginian government. In 218, Hannibal began the Second Punic War against . Year after year, Hannibal won battle after battle, including completely destroying two Roman armies in 212 B.C. However, by 209 B.C. it was becoming increasingly clear that Fabius' strategy was working for and winning battles would not win the war for .GB84875. Bronze 1/5 Unit, 582 (R1), 521, 114, 67, F, dark , rough, scratches, corrosion, broad , 2.213 g, maximum 14.8 mm, 0o, mint, c. 237 - 209 B.C.; wreathed of Tanit left; crested Corinthian helmet left with earflaps; ; $65.00 (€57.85)
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