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Roman Republic, Dictatorship of Julius Caesar, L Hostilius Saserna, 48 B.C.
The events of 48 B.C. are among the best known of ancient history. Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and later was greeted at Alexandria with a gift of Pompey's head. The twenty-one-year-old Cleopatra VII had herself delivered to him rolled in a carpet and became his mistress. Caesar and Cleopatra defeated Ptolemy XIII, but during the battle the Library of Alexandria was burned.
This type refers to Caesar's taking of Massilia early in the war with Pompey. Artemis Ephesia was held in special reverence at Massilia, where they had a temple dedicated to her.RR82689. Silver denarius, Crawford 448/3, Sydenham 953, RSC IHostilia 4, Sear Imperators 19, BMCRRRome 3996, SRCV I 419, gVF, attractive toning, light marks, die wear, reverse slightly off center, weight 3.993 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 48 B.C.; obversebare head of Gallia right with long disheveled hair, carnyx (Gallic trumpet) behind; reverse cultus statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus standing facing, laureate, long hair falling down her shoulders and long flowing robes, holding stag left by its antlers with her right hand, vertical spear in left hand, SASERNA curving upward on left, L ? HOSTILIVS downward on right; ex Gorny and Mosch auction 176 (10 Mar 2009), lot 1962; scarce; $450.00 (€382.50)
Brettii, Bruttium, Italy, c. 211 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.GB85690. Bronze reduced uncia, Scheu Bronze 103 (C), SNG ANS 90, HN Italy 2006, gVF, attractive style, nice green patina, obverse a little off center but full head on flan, weight 8.555 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, Brettii mint, c. 211 - 203 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, within laurel wreath; reverse BPET−TIΩN, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open, lyre (control symbol) lower left; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6 (22 Feb 2014), lot 14; $135.00 (€114.75)
Bruttium, Italy, The Brettian League, Allies of Hannibal, c. 216 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his victory at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Castra Hannibalis, in Bruttium. The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of Bruttium. Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by Rome for menial work.GI84160. Bronze drachm, Scheu Bronze 19 (rare); SNG Cop 1672; SNG ANS 57; SNG Munchen 1284; SNG Morcom 351; BMC Italy p. 328, 76; HN Italy 1978, VF, lacking legend due to off center and uneven strike, weight 7.834 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 90o, Kroton (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 214 - 208 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, ear of grain (control symbol) behind; reverse BPET−TIΩN (clockwise from upper right), eagle standing left on thunderbolt, hexagram (control symbol) left; rare; $125.00 (€106.25)
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.
In 67, Jewish leaders in Jerusalem were divided by a power struggle, a brutal civil war erupted, the Zealots and the Sicarii executed anyone who tried to leave the city.JD86851. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1360, VF, weakly struck areas, scratches, weight 2.857 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverseamphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; $95.00 (€80.75)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.
It is remarkable that in the graves in Germany, no example of oblong shields are found, but all are round. -- See Collectanea Antiqua by C.R. SmithRS85044. Silver denarius, RIC III MA606 (S), BMCRE IV M642, RSC II 77a, MIR 18 335, SRCV II 5543, Hunter II - (cxliii), aF, centered on a tight flan, toned, bumps, scratches (a few heavy), edge cracks (one long), weight 2.716 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 345o, Rome mint, as caesar, Jun 175 - Oct/Nov 176; obverse COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERMSARM, bare-headed, draped bust right, seen from behind; reverseDE GERMANIS (devictus Germanis - Germans conquered), two captives seated on shields, facing outward, at the base of a trophy of captured arms, unbound mourning female on left, male on right with hands bound behind his back; scarce; $50.00 (€42.50)