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On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.JD86547. Bronze 1/8 shekel, Kadman III 37, Hendin 1369, Meshorer TJC 214, VF, well centered, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 5.778 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, year 4, 69 - 70 A.D.; obverseOmer cup with pearled rim; reverse bundle of lulav flanked by two ethrogs; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; $580.00 (€493.00)
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.
"and you shall take of yourselves on the first day [of Sukkot] the fruit of a goodly tree [etog], a palm branch, the myrtle branch, and the willow of the brook [lulav]; and you shall rejoice before the L-rd your G-d seven days" -- Leviticus 23JD86865. Bronze eighth denomination, Meshorer AJC II p. 262, 30a; Kadman III 37; Hendin 1369; Meshorer TJC 214, F, obverse slightly off center, rough, a few pits, tiny edge crack, weight 4.535 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 0o, 69 - 70 A.D. mint, Year 4, 69 - 70 A.D.; obverse To the redemption of Zion in Hebrew, chalice with a pearled rim; reverse Year four in Hebrew, Lulav (myrtle, palm and willow branches tied together), flanked by an etrog (citron - small lemon like fruit) on each side, inscription divided by the Lulav; $225.00 (€191.25)
Phistelia, Campania, Italy, c. 325 - 275 B.C.
The Samnites were early Rome's most formidable rivals. The Samnite Wars extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy. By 290 B.C., after decades of hard fought battles the Romans broke the Samnites' power. They rose up again and allied with Pyrrhus during the Pyrrhic War. After Pyrrhus was defeated Samnium submitted to Rome but rose up again and joined Hannibal during the Second Punic War. The Samnites were the last tribal group holding out against Rome in the Social War. Sulla conducted an ethnic cleansing campaign against this most stubborn and persistent of Rome's adversaries and by 82 B.C. forced the remnant to disperse. So great was the destruction that it was recorded that "the towns of Samnium have become villages, and most have vanished altogether." Phistelia was apparently among those that vanished. At present it is known only by its coins. GS86685. Silver obol, SNG ANS 584; SNG France 1134; Rutter pg. 180, Group IV; HN Italy 619, VF, toned, small flan crack, lightly etched surfaces, weight 0.611 g, maximum diameter 10.5 mm, die axis 180o, Phistelia mint, c. 325 - 275 B.C.; obverse female head facing slightly left; reverselion left, snake left with one coil in exergue; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex CNG e-auction 148 (20 Sep 2006), lot 93; ex David Herman Collection; ex CNG Sale XXXI (9-10 Sep 1994), lot 21; $180.00 (€153.00)
Parthian Empire, Vologases VI, 208 - 228 A.D.
Soon after Vologases VI succeeded his father to the throne, his brother Artabanus V rebelled against him and became master of the greater part of the empire. Vologases VI retained a part of Babylonia. Meanwhile, in 224, Ardashir I, the founder of the Sassanid Empire, defeated and killed Artabanus V and conquered the eastern provinces. Over the following years, Ardashir I expanded his new empire, and must have defeated Vologases VI in 228 or 229. GS86648. Silver drachm, Sellwood 88.19, Sunrise 459, Shore 458, EF, toned, slightly off center, flan splits and cracks, weight 3.708 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Ecbatana (Hamedan, Iran) mint, 208 - 228 A.D.; obversebust left with long pointed beard extending to beaded border, wearing tiara with ear flaps, crest of dotted lines, dotted lines to left of line down side, abbreviated king's name in Aramaic lↄ (wz = Wlgšy= Vologases) upper right; reverse archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, bow in extended right hand, cross under legs, TA monogram under bow, squared five-line legend around Aramaic Wlgšy MLK' (King Vologases) at the top, followed by a four line stylized and totally blundered "Greek" inscription below and around; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $165.00 (€140.25)
Brettii, Bruttium, Italy, c. 211 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.GB85690. Bronze reduced uncia, Scheu Bronze 103 (C), SNG ANS 90, HN Italy 2006, gVF, attractive style, nice green patina, obverse a little off center but full head on flan, weight 8.555 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, Brettii mint, c. 211 - 203 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, within laurel wreath; reverse BPET−TIΩN, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open, lyre (control symbol) lower left; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6 (22 Feb 2014), lot 14; $150.00 (€127.50)
Bruttium, Italy, The Brettian League, Allies of Hannibal, c. 216 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his victory at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Castra Hannibalis, in Bruttium. The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of Bruttium. Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by Rome for menial work.GI84160. Bronze drachm, Scheu Bronze 19 (rare); SNG Cop 1672; SNG ANS 57; SNG Munchen 1284; SNG Morcom 351; BMC Italy p. 328, 76; HN Italy 1978, VF, lacking legend due to off center and uneven strike, weight 7.834 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 90o, Kroton (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 214 - 208 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, ear of grain (control symbol) behind; reverse BPET−TIΩN (clockwise from upper right), eagle standing left on thunderbolt, hexagram (control symbol) left; rare; $125.00 (€106.25)
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.
In 67, Jewish leaders in Jerusalem were divided by a power struggle, a brutal civil war erupted, the Zealots and the Sicarii executed anyone who tried to leave the city.JD86851. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1360, VF, weakly struck areas, scratches, weight 2.857 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverseamphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; $95.00 (€80.75)
Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613; BMC Italy p. 131, 12, F, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obversehead of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; rare; $80.00 (€68.00)